Shadow theater is an old form of art in which figures are made by reflecting the movement of hands or puppets on a screen made of see-through fabric that is lit from behind. This makes for a very interesting optical effect. This art was born in Asia as a result of religious rituals and spiritual worship of the ancestors; thanks to this, it gained popularity, and later, it would become part of the shadow plays.
Today, countries such as Taiwan and China continue to develop presentations based on the theme, while in India they are performed in rural areas as part of the religious tradition. Young people in these countries often use this branch of drama in modern shows, although in China there is a lower rate of participation among youth groups.
Silhouettes in the Spotlight
The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) defines shadow theater as a traditional art discipline where artists use puppets placed near a spotlight, which is covered by a translucent curtain or screen. The puppeteers control the puppets by keeping them still or moving them around on stage. This makes funny silhouettes in the darkened room.
The images transmit different forms or facets, where we can observe, for example, the puppets laughing, walking, fighting, and dancing. This type of art shares the varied content of traditional theatrical works, but the subject matter changes depending on the country where it is performed. Generally, the artists of this genre focus on cultural stories, which are born from the oral expressions of the people (or their legends), as well as humorous social criticism.
From Caveman to Emperor Wu's Love Story
The history of this kind of theater goes back to the time of the caveman, who produced shadows with his body and hands in front of the fire. But it wasn't until the rule of the Chinese emperor Wu (156–87 BC) that the Chinese shadow theater began, based on his love story that gave rise to this artistic manifestation.
According to the story, Wu, saddened by the death of his wife, Li, had no desire to rule; the worried ministers got the help of an old sage, who designed the figure of the young woman with wood. After that, the old man put the picture behind a fine cloth and moved it in a way that made the silhouette of a woman appear in front of the curtain.
The widower recovered his joy because he believed that the spirit of his beloved was in his shadow. Then, shadow theater spread to other parts of Asia and the rest of the world, keeping the same style but adding new decorations that fit the story.
A Simple Yet Complex Art of Light and Shadows
Making a shadow theater does not require great scenographic efforts, since the puppets are the protagonists of the show. It is a theatrical genre characterized by its simplicity. The puppets are made of cardboard, thin wood, hard cardboard, donkey, horse, or cow leather.
Shadow theater uses precise language, made up of specific characters. In this sense, to go deeper into the subject, we created a list of the types of figures that are used and the general characteristics of this amazing art:
There are four types of flat figures: moving figures, black silhouettes, transparent silhouettes, and silhouettes with holes.
Figures that can move: Since they are made of flexible materials, they can move in many ways, making the puppets more expressive.
Black silhouette: the drawings are presented in full form, without perforations.
Transparent silhouettes: those that allow the light to pass through, but the objects are not visible despite being very luminous figures.
Silhouettes with perforations: perforated images that add light and color inside. They have no expressiveness whatsoever.
Body or shadow figures: shadows created from the body and hands are projected on a wall or screen.
Types of silhouettes: puppeteers make images representing humans, gods, animals, plants, or other things.
Screen: The size of the screen depends on the number of actors participating in the play. If body figures are included, it is recommended that they be large and have a height of 2.5 meters.
Spotlight: The lighting is created according to the type of shadow. For example, if the shadows are sharp, the artist uses concentrated light and places the figures attached to the screen.
On the other hand, if the light is diffuse, the puppets are placed far away from the screen. This makes shadows with blurry edges, which is perfect for making fog.
Characters: Are those mobile elements projected on the screen, fabric, or wall? In this modality of figures, anthropomorphic objects are included, i.e., tables, furniture, and doors, which are given a life of their own.
There are two kinds of characters: main and secondary. The main characters have more action, while secondary characters add to the story.
Language: it is based on the expressions of the shadows, thus building communicative language about a particular story. Narration is also applied.
There are also things like sound effects, objects used as decorations, the space where the artists work, and how visible they are to the public.
When the Puppets Take Center Stage with Falsetto
The techniques in shadow theater are nourished by some complements that bring dynamism, creativity, and imagination to the presentations. So, they use falsetto, a way of singing with higher voice notes, to get a sound that is close to being feminine.
Likewise, when performing shadow theater, improvised singing and the use of musical instruments are applied. In addition, the artists manipulate the puppets simultaneously during the play, which have a large number of joints to give them movement.
Chinese Contribution to Shadow Theater
Chinese shadows are directly related to shadow theater, whose origin dates back to the love story of Emperor Wu, already mentioned in the article. With time, the Chinese created "Chinese shadows", as they are also called, through different hand techniques, creating fantastic two-dimensional silhouettes. Unesco said that China had made a cultural contribution to this kind of art by taking it to a higher level in terms of how it looks.
On the other hand, there are currently new themes worldwide in shadow theater, including social, educational, political, and recreational themes, without focusing so much on religious content. Even though the technology is getting better, old-school puppeteers want young people to keep building on the art movement that began with fantasy, mystery, and a devotion to the occult. This would add a lot to world culture.