Veracruz, Mexico: A Cultural and Historical Blend

All of Veracruz is beautiful. Veracruz has idyllic cities full of great beauty, history, and culture. All the information you need.

Veracruz, Mexico: A Cultural and Historical Blend
The city and port of Veracruz. Photo:

Veracruz is a melting pot of cities and expressions that give this state great cultural richness. The city of Veracruz, "the four times heroic" and gateway to the country, throughout the history of Mexico, was the main port of commercial exchange between New Spain and the Iberian Peninsula and the Caribbean.

Veracruz also has its roots in one of the most important Mesoamerican cultures, the Totonaca culture, whose ceremonial center is El Tajin, near the city of Papantla, known as "The city that perfumes the world". This is the birthplace of the legendary Papantla flyers, whose ceremony contains a great symbolic charge.

Veracruz also has other idyllic cities full of great beauty, such as the city of Cordoba, founded out of commercial necessity, which played a very important role in the history of Mexico, since the peace treaties that put an end to the War of Independence were signed there.

The same is the city of Orizaba, located at the foot of the Citlaltépetl volcano, better known as the Pico de Orizaba, which preserves its majesty in the buildings that surround its square, such as the Palacio de Hierro designed by Gustave Eiffel.

And of course, the magic of its capital: the city of Xalapa, also known as the Athens of Veracruz for being a cultural center since the mid-twentieth century, and is the epicenter of multiple artistic and literary movements. All of Veracruz is beautiful.

San Juan de Ulúa

On the islet of San Juan de Ulúa the fortress of the same name was built, an extraordinary example of Spanish military architecture in New Spain. After the landing of Juan de Grijalva in that natural form as part of the discovery of the zone and the later colonization campaign of Hernán Cortés, the construction of the military building began around 1535 with materials of the region; the constructive process was concluded until the XVII century.

At first, it was used to protect maritime vessels since Veracruz became an important commercial port, a category that attracted pirates from Spain's enemy powers that sought to assault the place, so the fortress also resisted the attacks of the "thieves of the sea".

In 1755 by royal orders it began to function as a prison until 1915, among its cells were important characters of Mexico's history such as Fray Servando Teresa de Mier, Mariano Abasolo, Benito Juárez, Salvador Díaz Mirón, and the famous bandit Juan Arriaga better known as "Chucho el Roto" (Chucho the Broken). In 1914 Venustiano Carranza established the seat of his government in the fortress.

In 1962 the building was declared a historic monument and given to INAH for safekeeping. At present, it houses a museum inaugurated in 1984 in which you can find important archaeological pieces of the region of the Gulf of Mexico, as well as weapons and armor from the XVI to XIX centuries that, together with the tour through the fortress, allow to know an important part of Veracruz and Mexico.

Port of Veracruz

Considered the main gateway to America, it witnessed the commercial exchange between New Spain and the Iberian Peninsula, and the Caribbean. Its economic importance was reflected in the urban layout of the city and in the system of fortifications that guarded it against pirate attacks for many years until its demolition at the end of the 19th century.

The city became a group of masonry buildings, neighborhoods, convents, churches, and portals that defined the face of the port in which the black, indigenous, and Spanish mixture marked the identity of the "jarochos" who walked, walk, and will walk its streets, avenues, and squares.

Portals of Veracruz

One of the most important meeting centers of the port of Veracruz is the portals of the main square whose construction permit dates back to 1595. These represented the economic power given their commercial use and were erected near the ecclesiastical and political powers, they have been modified over time.

The most important café in the place, La Parroquia, founded in the 19th century, is located in them. This establishment has represented a fragment of the history of the port, where political and social meetings that have determined the course of the city have taken place.

Music, colors, flavors, and smells are mixed in this space where to the rhythm of the son jarocho the women of Veracruz tap dance among the waves of white lace of their costumes and the guitars and harps that are in the hands of the residents of Veracruz harmonize every moment.

San Carlos Military Hospital

By the beginning of the 19th century, it was considered that the hospital network in New Spain was relevant. This hospital network allowed that, of the 28 that were established throughout the territory, five were military.

However, the area of health from the perspective of the members of its armed forces raises a series of elements that involve not only health but also political and economic aspects. Specialists highlight the capture of Havana by the English in 1762, as one of the elements that boosted the attention to the defensive networks of the Spanish territories.

The existence of hospital infrastructure with a military profile in our current national territory began with the construction in the 18th century of the Royal Hospital of San Carlos, one of the hospitals located in the port of Veracruz. The building, located in the area of today's historic center, played an important role during the interventions suffered by the city, in addition to providing aid in cases of epidemics that devastated the port.

Its construction took several years, first occupying the facilities of the Women's Hospital and the Loreto Hospital, until around 1780, when an expansion was made to build the facilities that currently belong to it. Sometime later, nearby properties were acquired that allowed for the expansion of the services it provided.

References about epidemics in Veracruz during the 19th century document the passage (among others) of smallpox, yellow fever (also known as black vomit), measles, bubonic plague, and cholera (which, even at the beginning of the 20th century, had an impact on the population); and on the different occasions the hospital institution provided support to the citizens.

The anecdotes of the American invasion of 1847 reflect the case of Veracruz as a remarkable element. The city, bombarded by land and sea, resented in a notorious way the American siege, which damaged infrastructure beyond the forts that established the defense from the wall that guarded the municipality.

Located very close to the wall in the western area, the facilities of the military hospital were affected, which forced repairs to the building, which by 1862 made it possible to house up to 300 beds inside.

The second American intervention, in April 1914, marks another milestone of the services provided by the hospital during the difficult times of the population, once again assisting the wounded who arrived requiring help between the 21st and 23rd.

The building currently has three courtyards, a central one and two facing the side streets; in the first one, the original façade of the building can be identified, while in the one facing the street to the south, the hospital's infirmary can be distinguished.

The Huaca neighborhood

Shortly before becoming known as the emblematic neighborhood of the Huaca, in the 19th century, a street outside the wall was named after Luis Johnson, who built a series of wooden rooms with Catalan tile roofs (Gema Lozano). Its name has several meanings, from the one that relates it to the Peruvian god of death, the other that links it with the discovery of indigenous treasures, or the one that relates it to the Nahuatl: "shotgun with two cannons".

Beyond its meaning, the neighborhood still keeps within its courtyards, houses, and streets, the history, tradition, and joy of other times. A neighborhood that was the birthplace of politicians, singers, and baseball players; from which also emerged carnival troupes integrated by its inhabitants, some of which to this day continue to participate with their joy, dance, and evolutions in the carnival parades.

In the neighborhood of the Huaca, the courtyards formed labyrinths of houses where daily life, with its row of sinks, common bathrooms, and celebration of family, religious or traditional festivities, gave another nuance to the city of Veracruz. From the Huaca emerged brave men and women who stood up to an invasion or to defend their right to their homes.

Some of the characters who lived and inhabited the space called Huaca were Manlio Fabio Tapia Camacho, who was municipal president of Veracruz; Dr. Salvador Zaudio Novoa; the artists María Antonia Peregrino "Toña la Negra", the Peregrino brothers, Pedro Domínguez "Moscovita" and the sonero mayor Ignacio Tellez "El Cabezón". Sportsmen such as baseball player Pedro "Charrascas" Ramirez, Lorenzo and Raymundo O'rrellin, boxers, and the carnival king Monchin Alfaro "Cara de Anona", among many others, undoubtedly forged the history of this emblematic neighborhood.

Boca Forum

Precinct headquarters of the Boca del Río Philharmonic Orchestra, designed by Mexican architect Michel Rojkind. It was inaugurated on December 1, 2017, by the Boca del Río Philharmonic, with Jorge Mester as chief conductor, and international violinist Joshua Bell. The precinct takes up in its architecture the timeless expression of the concrete cubes that form the breakwaters.

It has a main hall for classical, traditional, and popular music concerts with a capacity of 966 spectators, as well as theater, dance, and film shows. It also has a rehearsal room for 150 people.

The space is also designed for workshops, festivals, and book fairs. It has a terrace overlooking the sea and the river. The private area of the building responds mainly to the needs of the philharmonic orchestra with rehearsal rooms for percussion, pianos, and soloists, as well as a recording studio. It includes general dressing rooms for conductors and guest musicians, as well as for the director of the Philharmonic. The building also has an office and library area, cafeterias, and a restaurant.

Cantonal School of Veracruz Francisco Xavier Clavijero

The building is located in the downtown area of the city. It has architecture identified as neoclassical and, according to the perception of the time, it is located in the center of a park (named after the Veracruz defender Ciriaco Vázquez). Built-in the 19th century, it was part of the schools that were established in each of the territorial divisions of the state in the 19th century. This political division, known as cantons, was established in 1824 as an inheritance of what was established according to the Constitution of Cadiz, which did not end up coming into force in Mexico, but which allowed the first political divisions in Mexico.

In the case of the State of Veracruz, whose State Constitution was promulgated in 1825, education was left in the hands of the City Councils, which made infrastructure and developed the work according to their possibilities. It will be in the middle of the XIX Century, during the government of Francisco Hernández y Hernández (1867 to 1872), that the largest number of schools will be established, assigned by cantons, and more students will be attended.

Francisco de Landero y Cos, governor of the entity who succeeded Hernández y Hernández, was the one who issued the Organic Law of Public Instruction of the state, which initiated the educational change and, in the end, allowed the construction of the building. During the state government of Juan de la Luz Enriquez, around 1884, the construction of the cantonal schools that would provide educational services in the state began.

It was in 1886 when the Francisco Javier Clavijero Elementary School began to operate, which served a child population under the name of Boys' School number 1, and later became known as the Boys' High School.


Xalapa de Enríquez, whose name is official with an "X" since 1978, was founded when the four urban settlements that gave rise to it did, in 1313, although Xalapa or Xallac (place of sandy waters) had already existed since 1150.

Xalapa was built on a rugged site where the layout of its streets, alleys, buildings, and squares are unique and unforgettable. Named "City of Flowers" by Baron Humboldt in 1804, today Xalapa de Enriquez is a colonial city adorned with beautiful gardens and magnificent greenhouses. The city's architecture is eclectic, with buildings that mix neoclassical, Mudejar, and neo-Gothic styles, such as the Government Palace, the Municipal Palace, and the Cathedral.

The Cathedral is dedicated to the Virgin of the Immaculate Conception, the patron saint of Xalapa. It was completed in 1778 in baroque style and has a tower adorned with a clock brought from England and the other tower is still incomplete. In its interior are the remains of the fifth bishop of Veracruz, Rafael Guízar y Valencia (1877-1937), beatified by Pope John Paul II in 1995.


El Tajin

Located on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, the Pre-Columbian City of El Tajin is considered one of the sacred precincts of the Totonacs and Huaxtecs. It was founded around 200 AD.

In the indigenous language it means "lightning or hurricane", it was dedicated to the god responsible for these natural phenomena. It comprises three perfectly differentiated zones: the lower city, the upper city, and the complex of the building of the columns. In the lower city, there are numerous courts (17) for the ritual ball game, so it must have been the sacred center of this game.

The most important and surprising construction is the pyramid of the niches, consecrated to the god of rain and winds. It has a height of 18 meters and a square base of 36 meters per side. The seven levels separated from each other by cornices are formed by successive square niches, 365 in total. The whole complex is dominated by the building of the columns, but already with Toltec influences, has a height of 45 meters, the bas-reliefs that embellish the columns testify to the religious life of the inhabitants.

The Papantla Flyers

The Totonaca region is bordered to the north by the Huasteca Veracruzana and to the south by the northern highlands of Puebla; within the latter is the city of Papantla, known as "The city that perfumes the world" because of the orchid from which the pod known as "vanilla" is extracted.

The elements that make up the different cultures, including the Totonaca, remain and are shown in features such as clothing, food, and one of the best-known manifestations that identifies Papantla: The Flyers.

From a symbolic load, the ceremony of the flyers communicates, according to diverse scholars, that the thirteen turns that each one of the four flyers gives signify the 52 years that correspond to the entrance of a new sun. While these descend, another one stays at the tip of the trunk touching and dancing.

Some aspects to follow involve choosing the tree to be cut and the offerings to be deposited in the hole where the trunk is buried. These preparations give way to the performance of the ceremony in Papantla and so many other places in the state of Veracruz.

Papantla Cathedral, Lady of the Assumption

The Cathedral is located in the center of the city and its construction began in the XVI century by the Franciscan order, around 1570, and finished in 1590. It is a Franciscan style construction, with a cross-shaped nave. The facade is made up of four Romanesque pilasters flanking an entrance arch and a huge door of two carved cedar leaves. The tower was not built until 1875 and was finished in 1879, with a height of 30 meters. Its clock dates from 1895, still in operation.

As part of its architectural treasures, the church has a central altar where the Virgin of the Assumption is located, on the right side of the pulpit, there are three medallions with the apparitions of the Virgin of Lourdes, on the left side the apparitions of the Tepeyac hill. Finally, in the lower part of the cathedral, there is a mural that tells the history of Papantla, from pre-Hispanic times to the present day.


Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception

The main church of the municipality of Córdoba. Its first temple was built in 1621, and later it was raised, with donations from the founders of the town, in lime and stone; it was finished in 1660. The present building was begun around 1678, and was completed in 1725; it was blessed that same year. In that same century is when the temple already had different and very rich ornaments, and the high choir with bell wheels and two organs is built.

The tower of the church was completed shortly thereafter, then had four bells and five shear bells; the largest of the bells had an estimated weight of 133 arrobas. The characteristics of its architecture place it as neoclassical; a building with a Latin cross basilica plan (intersection of nave and transept), with three naves of equal size and an ambulatory (space surrounding the main altar). Its dome is octagonal and is adorned with tile brought from Puebla; its towers are the highest of the temples of the state of Veracruz. The façade has Ionic, French and Tuscan details, which makes it referred to as eclectic.

It has three hand-forged gates, the main one includes four pairs of columns. It is also distinguished by three stained glass windows with a view toward the choir; besides the main window with two pairs of columns crowned by a neoclassical target. The trellis that surrounds it is of Arab style; and the atrium had, in its moment, nourished vegetation that was removed with time. It is on the exterior of the church where the original bells of the temple are exhibited today.

The sides of the facade are distinguished for having medallions of the Christian religion, which present a bridge and a palm tree over a desert, a symbol of the earthly world with the spiritual world. The interior, considered Doric (one of the oldest types of architecture, inherited from the Greeks), allows appreciation of the baroque style; with ornaments, details elaborated in gold leaf, and paintings of the XVIII century (works of the Tlacotalpeño artist Salvador Ferrando).

The main altar is decorated in bright gold, located in an apse (semicircular shape) that forms the ambulatory. There is the image of the Virgen de la Soledad, the patron saint of the city. The tabernacle of the cathedral is considered one of the most beautiful of Veracruz, made of German silver brought from Belgium, with rococo style in the chapel. The upper part has the inscription "Hic Est Domus Dei Et Porta Coeli" (This is the House of God that takes you to Heaven).

Plaza Mayor (Central Park 21 de Mayo)

The central plazas or public squares are, from the specialist's perspective, the places where a community is built. Their relevance during the 18th century in our country stems from a need for local identity that gave rise to the Mexico that began its construction in the following century.

The city of Cordoba, in the state of Veracruz, has a square that developed according to the growth of its community. Although they refer to it as belonging to a late stage (its foundation obeys a commercial need), the location of Cordoba allowed a more fluid exchange of the natural products of the region.

Inhabited mostly by mestizos, and with a high number of Afro-descendant inhabitants, the plaza became a relevant space with a public fountain in the last quarter of the 18th century (although water supply was never a problem in the region).

Surrounded by the Portal de Zevallos, the Royal House, the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, and the Portal de La Gloria (formerly referred to as Padre Tablas and also known as La Favorita), the Plaza Mayor was the main access to the religious headquarters of the municipality, besides allowing the entrance to the portals where the daily life of the most prosperous citizens of the city took place and the obligatory transit to the municipal offices.

Described with an extension of 50 varas (about 42 meters) on each side, it was the point for the buying and selling of slaves and material goods, including the announcements, as well as being the space where the auctions or public auctions were held. Likewise, they detail, that it was the place where the citizens were summoned when it was necessary to defend the national territory from invading incursions.

The historical reference allows knowing that, in May 1821, when the royalist army gathered to recover the route to the highlands and the city (which at that time was in the hands of the insurgents), the people of Cordoba, together with the inhabitants of neighboring towns, gathered to carry out the defense.

The confrontation took place on May 20, with José Joaquín de Herrera as commander of the local cavalry, who with 300 men of his battalion, reinforced with the citizens and indigenous people of Amatlán, faced the forces that besieged the city until the early morning of the following day.

When the cavalry troops sent by Herrera returned, they were received in triumph by the citizens who had collaborated in the defense, paving the way for the signing of the treaties that bear the city's name. The historical facts contributed to the fact that, in 1880, the city was given the title of Heroic.

The plaza, currently named 21 de Mayo, responds to a European influence; with landscaped areas (the so-called squares), a kiosk in the middle of the passage from the cathedral to the Casa de Cabildo, the statue in homage to Miguel Hidalgo, a bust in honor of Agustín de Iturbide and the obelisk that recalls the defense of 1821 by the citizens.

San Francisco Toxpan Cultural Center

Located in the town of Toxpan (meaning "place of the rabbits"), two kilometers from the city of Cordoba. This construction, which dates back to 1690, was a hacienda that, at the time, was one of the first sugar mills and one of the most important generators of the region's economy in the 17th and 19th centuries.

Both the building and the open spaces overlooking the countryside were conditioned to become an attractive Cultural Center with large multipurpose rooms for special events such as the Sweet Fair, and festivals for children on art and appreciation of nature. Workshops on sculptural ceramics, theater, acrobatics, folkloric dance, drawing, painting, and spinning, among others, are offered.

On the other hand, in its facilities is located the Sugarcane Museum, which offers a general exhibition of the development of the sugarcane industry in the region and the country, and also contains references to the work instruments and machinery (trapiches) used in that sector. It also has a cultural corridor and a special room for the inhabitants to carry out learning and rehearsal activities, such as the Youth and Philharmonic Orchestras of Córdoba.


Central Park

Located in the center of the city of Orizaba, in front of the Cathedral of San Miguel Arcángel, on the corner of Colón Poniente Avenue and Madero Street. It was built where there used to be a small garden or park called Plazoleta de la Parroquia or Los Naranjos, due to the abundance of these trees that were planted at the suggestion of the historian of Orizaba, José María Naredo.

In 1870 this garden was adorned with gazebos and planters and planted with tall poplars. In 1883, the then governor Apolinar Castillo ordered the beautification of several material works, among them the Jardín de los Naranjos, which in his honor began to be named Plaza Apolinar Castillo and later Parque Castillo.

Its architectural beauty is highlighted by a kiosk erected in 1902, in which the notes of the National Anthem can be observed. In addition, on September 16, 1901, the marble statue of the Father of the Homeland, Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, was inaugurated, and on April 12, 1903 homage was paid to the heroes of the Homeland with a beautiful monument carved in marble on whose pedestal reads: "To the Defenders of the Homeland, 1847-1848".

In 2008, Castillo Park was modernized: floors were replaced, sidewalks and trimmings were rehabilitated on the periphery of the park, the kiosk was completely remodeled with new lighting, walls were put up and 38 new benches were placed around the planters.

On September 25, 2015, the city of Orizaba was granted the designation of Magic Town and one of the causes for its denomination was to have among its architectural beauties the Apolinar Castillo Park; however, in June 2017, during the administration of Juan Manuel Diez Francos, it was renamed, Central Park.

Ignacio de la Llave Grand Theater

It was built under the initiative of the illustrious orizabeño and Governor of the State General Ignacio de la Llave, twenty years before the arrival of Porfirio Diaz; its scheme is of a theater to the Italian, Neoclassical style, being the author the Architect Joaquin Huerta. It was inaugurated with great majesty in 1875 with the presentation of the contralto opera singer María Jurief.

In 1973 it was shaken by an earthquake that practically destroyed it, leaving only the façade undamaged. In 1985 it was rebuilt preserving the facade and its same style.

Palacio de Hierro

One of the unique buildings in the country is located in the city of Orizaba, an exponent of Art Nouveau and catalogued as the metallic palace: the Palacio de Hierro, designed by the French engineer Alexandre Gustave Eiffel. Conceived as a palace of metallic structure with the characteristic of being disassembled and whose approximate price was $ 71,000.00 in gold, a cost that was assumed by Manuel Carrillo Tablas, a philanthropist from Orizaba, the municipality, and the state government.

The transfer of the structure was carried out in three steamships: the Paris, the Vala, and the Havhre, which left with their valuable cargo from the port of Antwerp, Belgium, crossing the Atlantic and having as arrival point the port of Veracruz, the shipment of the material was made by railroad to Orizaba.

The materials of which it is constructed are: iron, galvanized forged steel, wooden doors and windows, ironwork, iron railings, glass, wood, brick, a clock for the tower and contains oil paintings. The cost of putting it together with Belgian workers was expensive, so Mexican hands were hired under the direction of engineer Arturo B. Coca for the foundations. Coca in the foundations and the engineer Ricardo Segura in the erection of the body of the building.

The building was inaugurated on September 16, 1894, and functioned as the municipal palace for 97 years. Currently, in addition to being occupied by offices, it houses six museums: the Beer Museum, the Geographic Museum of Orizaba, the Soccer Museum, the Orizaba Roots Museum, the Rodolfo Neri Vela Planetarium, and the Interactive Museum. The Palacio de Hierro is located on Francisco I. Madero Street, between Poniente 2 and 4.

Art Museum of the State of Veracruz (MAEV)

Precinct belonging to the IVEC, inaugurated on November 27, 1992, in the old Oratory of San Felipe Neri, in Orizaba. It is a building that dates from 1774 and whose construction contains the church of Santa Maria de Guadalupe, the Oratory of San Felipe Neri, two cloisters, and three patios, and preserves a fountain of the time. It permanently exhibits different collections of paintings in ten rooms that cover a vast period: from the last third of the viceregal era to the mid-twentieth century.

The collection preserves and exhibits works by Miguel Cabrera, Juan Cordero, Eugenio Landesio, José María Velasco, José Justo Montiel, Ramón Sagredo, Felipe Santiago Gutiérrez, Humboldt, Rugendas, Egerton, Nebel, Bullock, Haverfield, Casimiro Castro, Espronceda, Cusachs, Alfredo Ramos Martínez, Salvador Ferrando, Alberto Fuster, Carlos Rivera, Ignacio Rosas, Augusto Lohr and Gonzalo Argüelles Bringas.

It also houses 36 works by Diego Rivera that exemplify his trajectory from the academy, the aesthetic avant-garde of the 20th century -such as cubism- to the crystallization of his unique style that originated in the Mexican School of Painting. In addition, the museum organizes conferences and cultural events for the general public.

Veracruz cuisine

Huasteca Cuisine

In Huastecan cuisine, corn is a major player, accompanied by the metate and the molendero, elements used to transform it into the dough and prepare handmade tortillas. They are also used to make enchiladas with pipian sauce, based on pumpkin seeds, green chili, and salt; or enchiladas de baile, which are the main dish, as they include cabbage, tanned chili peppers, and fried chicken.

Another dish is bocoles, tortillas cooked on the comal, filled with cheese, refried beans, egg, chorizo, or potato. Not to mention the enchiladas de ajonjolí, which are finger-licking good.

Some of the gastronomic delights from Tuxpan to Tamiahua are marinated shrimp, peppered or pickled oysters, or stuffed crabs called ambrosias. For parties, they serve the famous Pázkal. Finally, the Sacahuil is a huge tamale made of sifted dry dough mixed with whipped lard, fried and ground chiles, spices, and salt, adding jalapeño peppers in vinegar, which diners wait impatiently to savor this delicacy.

Sotavento Cuisine

Fish, guajolotes, ducks, turtles, corn, and herbs such as acuyo and epazote, are some of the local products that, in a fortunate encounter with oil, olives, capers, almonds, wine, cod, raisins, and condiments brought by the conquistadors, give origin to the cuisine of the Papaloapan.

It is there where they are born: Pescado a la Veracruzana or better, its immediate ascendant, Pescado al Mojo Isleño; the delicious Bacalao a la Veracruzana; the marinades; the delicate poultry dishes such as Pato con Vino (Duck with Wine); stews with strong and sophisticated flavors, such as Octopus in its ink or Fish in Sauce; delicate and tasty desserts based on pastries, almonds, milk, and eggs; refreshing drinks such as Horchata de Arroz or the famous Torito de Cacahuate, when it comes to celebrating.

Totonacapan Cuisine

In Totonacapan culture, corn is the most versatile actor in the kitchen; corn is a starter, soup, main dish, dessert, and a hot or cold drink. But corn, as a good Totonaca, is not a solitary character. It is always accompanied by beans, tomatoes, chili, and pumpkin seeds.

On a clay stove there is always a casserole with hot beans, others with plenty of sauce and mole. There is salt and lard and roasted pumpkin seed, ground and mixed with chile chiltepín powder, also roasted and ground. And there is a zacual filled with ground dried cheese. If the kid is crying because he is dying of hunger, the women take out of the comal the tortilla that has already been cooked, put salt on it, roll it up and give it to him; it is no longer a taco: it is a cooked corn cigar, seasoned with salt, which they call Burro. There are also the Zampadas. The espolvoreadas and, of course, the bocoles are also enjoyed at every table.

In addition, we can add the chilpozontle of mushrooms from the region or a tangled chicken, a cuete mechado, a turkey mole, grilled rabbit with chiltepín, barbecued beef, or grilled fish wrapped in totomoxtle leaves, which reminds us of the pre-Hispanic kitchen but also lets us see that the Totonaca is a cuisine that is still in force.