The Mayan civilization thrived by harnessing the abundant resources of the tropical rainforests to support its complex social hierarchy. The economy was structured around the relationship between the ruling nobility and the peasantry, which defined the mode of production and the society's social behaviors and beliefs.
As Pedro Carrasco observed, the economy rested on a foundation of domination arising from the existence of two fundamental estates: the nobles who formed the ruling class and controlled the material means of production, and the commoners who were politically and economically dependent on the nobility.
The political factor played a crucial role in organizing the economy and influencing production and distribution processes. Although pre-industrial, the Mesoamerican economy was diversified, with agriculture being the primary sector.
In addition to producing food, agriculture provided raw materials for a variety of crafts. As such, the land was the most essential factor of production, and both it and labor were under the control of the political elite.
The fertile lowlands of this region offer a diverse range of resources, including plants, animals, and minerals. Perhaps the most significant of these resources are the various crops, including corn, tubers, chili, pumpkins, beans, cacao, vanilla, ramón or breadfruit, zapotes, and more, which are all readily consumed by the local people.
Additionally, there are plants such as copal, rubber, cotton, tobacco, achiote, and various coloring seeds, as well as the leaves and wood from a variety of palms and the bark of the ficus, which are primarily grown for exchange or undergo transformation processes.
Hunting and fishing are also important to the local economy and provide a source of food and valuable resources, such as skins, bones, teeth, and fat. Deer, armadillos, birds with rich plumage, jaguars, and iguanas are among the animals hunted, while the rivers, lakes, and coasts offer a vast array of fish, mollusks, and crustaceans.
Finally, the region boasts several valuable mineral resources, including limestone, flint, clays, and hard stones. Overall, the lowlands of this area offer a rich bounty of resources that have been carefully utilized by the local population for generations.
Mayan Social Stratification and Labor
In the ancient world, social stratification was rigidly enforced based on factors such as age, gender, and social status, as well as on the specialized skills attributed to different lineages. However, recent research suggests that the Yucatecan Maya farmers of old worked in the fields for just 190 days a year, tending to a plot of land measuring four to five hectares. Despite this relatively light workload, they were able to generate a steady harvest that could sustain their entire family.
If we extrapolate these figures to the wider ancient world, it suggests that peasants would have had around 175 days a year free to engage in public activities and domestic chores. While men were primarily responsible for farming, women would have remained in the home, tending to domestic duties such as preparing food, making clothing, and caring for children and small animals. Although children and wives would have assisted with farm work when needed, their primary focus would have been on supporting the household in other ways.
In ancient Mayan society, the peasant family was the fundamental unit of production. These families cultivated their cornfields using either slash-and-burn or long-term fallow techniques and produced their tools for domestic use.
However, any surplus agricultural production was claimed by the ruling class. The peasant labor force was also conscripted for construction and ceremonial services in the central hubs, as well as for cultivating plots of land that were designated for ruling elites or for state exchange.
It's possible that the Mayan State maintained large plantations specifically for the production of certain economically valuable goods, such as cotton, copal, and cacao. These were considered prestige items and were often restricted to the ruling minority for rituals and trade, with occasional redistribution to cover certain popular needs.
A rotating work system was likely used in these plantations, with workers paying tribute in services, or permanent workers being compensated with provisions from the surplus stored in state warehouses.
Mayan Artisans and Tribute
During ancient times, artisanal activity was often concentrated in the areas surrounding cities, where families of skilled artisans would reside. The State would absorb the products of their labor and provide support for these families when their kinship groups were unable to do so.
Essentially, this type of work involved the transformation of raw materials provided by the State and can be viewed as a form of tribute that individuals and local groups were obligated to pay. Alternatively, it could be seen as a direct dependence relationship between the artisan and the ceremonial center.
During the Formative period, it's likely that land was owned communally from the outset. Peasants would have secured plots by choosing elevated areas with superior drainage. However, as the population swelled, the land grew scarce, and competition among community memberTocreasingly fierce. To resolve conflicts, the kinship group that produced priests assumed control over the distribution of arable land. This system resulted in the effective management of all land within the social unit.
Under this arrangement, farmers were accountable for the output of their milpa and were required to report to officials. They would retain what was needed to sustain their families, while surplus goods were distributed to non-productive members of their domestic unit via a redistribution system, which incentivized farmers to deliver their excess produce.
Mayans and Redistribution of Resources
In numerous ancient and primitive societies, the social hierarchy was closely tied to the redistribution of resources. In these instances, positions of authority were granted status through the centralized collection of local surpluses. Agricultural excesses would be exchanged by the state, resulting in a variety of other goods that were then redistributed among the peasant population. For such a system to thrive, it required robust and efficient transportation channels for the movement of goods, as well as a state-sanctioned monopoly over commercial activities.
The decline of economic self-sufficiency in the Maya lowlands during ancient times ushered in a new era of long-distance trade that sought to forge relationships with diverse ecological zones. This commercial activity began with an increase in trade with the highlands of Chiapas and Guatemala, from where a plethora of goods was imported. Among these were prized commodities such as jade, obsidian, hematite, cinnabar, diorite, quetzal feathers, and volcanic stone mills and hands, which were likely already manufactured.
The Pacific coast also contributed to this flourishing trade network by providing sought-after items such as shells or their derivatives, including the dye of the purple land snail, as well as salt, which could be obtained from the deposits of the Chixoy River and the north of Yucatan.
Exports from the Maya lowlands were diverse and included items such as flint, jade, ceramics, feathers, limestone, Atlantic shells, skins, turtle shells, wax, honey, and a variety of plant products, particularly cacao, cotton (both manufactured and unmanufactured), and rubber, which was used to create balls for ritual games that were popular across Mesoamerica. Copal, a type of resin that was widely used in religious ceremonies, was also exported.
Archaeological evidence attests to this lively exchange of goods, as evidenced by the Teotihuacan vases discovered in Tikal, the frequent occurrence of highland obsidian at Petén sites, and the shells found in offerings and burials in Tikal and Uaxactún.