Current Mexico coronavirus curve: news, positive cases, and deaths
As of November 30, 2020, there are 1,113,543 confirmed cases of coronavirus in Mexico. There have been 1,356,344 negative cases, 105,940 confirmed deaths, and 823,586 recovered persons. Nationally, 38% of general hospitalization beds and 31% of ventilator beds are occupied.
The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) of the United States raised to level 4 (the highest) the risk of traveling to Mexico because of the probability of contracting coronavirus in national territory.
The organization suggests that if you must travel to Mexico, you should first consult your doctor, especially if you have a higher risk of contracting a serious coronavirus disease. It adds that, if the traveler becomes ill in Mexico, he or she may need medical attention, for which he or she should plan ahead and obtain more information on how to obtain medical care abroad.
They also suggest taking a viral test between one and three days before traveling, as well as following all entry requirements and giving any required or requested health information. They recommend using mouthguards throughout the trip and staying at least six feet away from other people.
Marisol Vanegas Perez, Secretary of Tourism of Quintana Roo, said that this is not a travel alert like those issued by the Department of State of the American Union, but rather a recommendation, which is not mandatory, but instead suggests that tourists take a viral test between one and three days before traveling.
The latter can be beneficial for Mexico and particularly for Quintana Roo, since Americans are taking more precautions before visiting our country, since the American Union has the greatest number of infections in the world and is also the greatest market for foreign tourists to Mexico.
The official recalled that Quintana Roo and particularly the Mexican Caribbean received around 4 million American tourists in 2019 and in 2020, despite the coronavirus crisis, the American Union remains the main emitter of travelers to Cancun and the Riviera Maya.
She ruled out that for the time being the travel recommendation issued by the CDC inhibits the arrival of visitors to Quintana Roo, since not even when the state traffic light was in orange were the travel restrictions to the region tightened, although she said that it will be necessary to wait until the State Department of the U.S. government does not issue a more restrictive travel alert following the announcement by the CDC.
As air operations resume in Latin America, several countries are trying to prevent the importation of coronavirus cases into their territory. Panama, Peru, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Colombia, Guatemala, the Caribbean, Ecuador, and Honduras are requesting a negative PCR test for coronavirus to enter the country.
Chile will allow the entry of international passengers until the end of November, only via the Santiago International Airport, and will also require a negative PCR test. Uruguay and Paraguay allow the arrival of foreigners, but they must be quarantined for 14 days. Meanwhile, Venezuela, Suriname, and Argentina still do not allow the entry of foreigners, according to information from the International Air Transport Association (IATA).
Only Brazil and Mexico do not request negative PCR tests for international passengers and have never closed air operations, even during the most severe months of quarantine. Both domestic and foreign passenger traffic has been gradually recovering in Mexico and Brazil.
IATA has spoken out in favor of a system of pre-travel coronavirus testing to implement a health passport, but there is no consensus among the countries. In Mexico, since the beginning of the pandemic, air operations have been maintained and no quarantine or negative PCR test is required to enter the country.
Coronavirus re-infection or prolonged illness?
Hugo López-Gatell, Undersecretary of Prevention and Health Promotion, indicated that up to now there is no consistent scientific evidence that indicates that reinfections by the coronavirus COVID-19 are real; even, he explained that the cases reported in the world are very few, so it can be said that they are merely anecdotal.
"There is not yet a consistent and solid scientific evidence about the implication of possible second reinfection by COVID and neither that this reinfection phenomenon could be real neither in Mexico nor in the world (...) They are sporadic, anecdotal cases, some of them have been formally documented and when they are documented there are these elements of confusion that can have regarding the presence of genetic material of the virus, which does not mean infection," he explained.
Sometimes remains of the virus remain in the human body, however, this does not imply reinfection nor risk of contagion for the other people around. He attributed this phenomenon to technical problems at the time of taking the PCR test, which could become contaminated with traces of the virus in the laboratory.
So far, there is no vaccine or specific treatment against Covid-19 coronavirus, but there is a possibility for each person to reduce the risk. Family parties are an effective means of contagion; they should be avoided.
The coronavirus pandemic in Mexico: the key dates
A review of the Mexican government's response to the health crisis caused by the Covid-19 coronavirus, highlighting important dates such as February 28th when the first case of the coronavirus was reported.
On January 16, the strategy preparation process began, where guidelines, manuals, and guides for the coronavirus epidemic were developed. On January 23, a daily technical statement was issued, which has been worked on ever since. On January 30, the National Committee for Health Security was installed, which was designed specifically to respond to health threats.
On February 14, it began with a situational diagnosis of the states to find out the capacities and degree of organization that the state health authorities had for this type of pandemic. On 18 February, support began for states with equipment and hospital reconversion, as well as with supplies and reagents so that they would have the capacity to respond. On Feb. 28, the first case of coronavirus in Mexico was presented, and eight technical groups were defined to deal with the pandemic.
On March 13, measures for phase 2 of the pandemic began in Mexico and by this day there were already 12 confirmed cases of covid-19. On March 23, the Day of Healthy Distance began, which was formalized with a resolution of the Ministry of Health supported by the General Health Council. On March 24, phase two of the pandemic was declared and the measures that were analyzed since March 13 began to be implemented.
Open data on the coronavirus pandemic began to be published in April and can be reviewed by the general public. Phase 3 began on April 21. A total of 55 guidelines were published throughout the pandemic, setting out measures for patient care, use, and management of personal protection, among others. They are divided into three sections, of which 29 are directed at health personnel, 17 are for the general public, and nine are guidelines on the covid in specific spaces.
The phases of the coronavirus
Phase 1: This phase is where there are cases of importation, secondary transmission, i.e., the traveler infects someone upon arrival and then there are infections at home.
Phase 2: This is where there is community dispersal and they are no longer alone in their daily environment and this is where the virus mitigation element was incorporated. This is where outdoor activities began to be suspended.
Phase 3: This is when an epidemic magnitude is considered and there is a national spread of the virus.
How the coronavirus outbreak began
In December 2019, Dr. Li Wenliang, of Wuhan City Central Hospital in Hubei Province, China, warned his colleagues on social networks about seven patients who had atypical pneumonia similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). SARS killed nearly 800 people worldwide in 2003, in an epidemic outbreak that emerged in China. The police forced Dr. Wenliang to keep quiet, and we lost the opportunity to mow down the epidemic that now concerns us.
The situation soon worsened, and on December 12 the Wuhan City Municipal Health Commission reported 27 cases of rare viral pneumonia, seven of them from seriously ill patients. What caught the attention of the authorities was that most of the patients had been to the same Wuhan fish and seafood market, where you can also buy live all kinds of creatures that are an essential part of the various recipes of that region: insects, bats, hedgehogs, snakes, marmots, field rats and other animals that are poached and sold illegally.
At first, it was thought that the epidemic originated in this market, since many viral diseases arise from contact between animals and humans (zoonoses). However, since not all the infected patients had been there, it is possible that the epidemic originated elsewhere. It is now thought that an infected person most likely visited the market and infected several of the customers. However, the market was closed on January 1st.
Sensing that things would become more serious, the Chinese government reported the situation to the local office of the World Health Organization (WHO) on December 31. And it was right: by January 3 of this year, 17 new cases had already accumulated, two days later there were 59 sick people and by February 16 51,857 sick people and 1,669 deaths had been confirmed. Of these, only 683 cases and three deaths are not from China. It was soon discovered that the new virus is capable of human-to-human transmission, but it does so less readily than SARS and despite the huge number of people infected the disease is not as lethal. Although the figures are not yet clear, it is estimated that around 2% of the infected die. On 31 January, the WHO declared this epidemic an international emergency.
Given the seriousness of the situation, the Chinese researchers did everything in their power to identify the pathogen. In the first days of January, they were not only able to isolate, culture, and identify it, they also managed to decipher its genome. The evidence left no doubt that a new coronavirus was responsible for the epidemic; according to the WHO, coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that cause diseases ranging from the common cold to more serious illnesses such as SARS. They are zoonotic viruses, that is, they are transmitted between animals and humans. The new coronavirus is called 2019-nCoV and the disease it causes is called COVID-2019 (Coronavirus Disease and the year it emerged).
On January 5, researchers from the Shanghai Clinical Center for Public Health and the School of Public Health at Fudan University deposited the genomic sequences of the new pathogen in an international database, GenBank, so that scientists from other parts of the world can contribute to understanding and solving the problem. The analysis of these data determined that the pathogen was closely related to two other coronaviruses that have caused serious problems in the recent past: one of them, responsible for the SARS epidemic that emerged in China in 2002 and killed 10% of those infected, and the other, the cause of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) that emerged in the Arabian Peninsula in 2012 and killed 30% of those infected. Coronaviruses are so-called because when looked at under an electron microscope they look like little crowns seen from above. By the way, their "spikes" are crucial for the virus to start the infection.
At this moment there are already many genomic sequences of 2019- nCoV from different patients. With them, researchers have designed molecular diagnostic methods, based on the amplification of specific regions of the coronavirus genome. These methods are a key tool for controlling the epidemic.
What is a coronavirus?
Coronaviruses are a group of pathogenic viruses that usually affect birds, mammals, and other vertebrates. They usually produce infections in the respiratory tract, although they can affect the gastrointestinal tract and sometimes the nervous system as well. Coronaviruses belong to the subfamily of Coronavirinae, which includes four genera: alphacoronaviruses, beta coronaviruses, gamma coronaviruses, and deltacoronaviruses. Virus 2019-nCoV belongs, together with the viruses that produce SARS and MERS, to the beta coronaviruses. Many of the colds we suffer from each year are caused by some alphacoronaviruses, but the infections they induce are usually mild and quick to recover.
The genome of coronaviruses is made up of a single, large molecule of RNA. In fact, these viruses have one of the largest RNA genomes known. That the genome of these viruses is RNA is relevant because it makes them more likely to mutate and therefore to evolve rapidly. Coronaviruses have 4 important structural proteins, but the protein that forms the peaks (S-protein) determines which host and which organism it will be able to infect.
The origin of the epidemic
Coronaviruses usually infect a wide range of animals. In some, the infection occurs without causing any major harm, probably because they have evolved together over thousands of years and have managed to smooth out their roughness over time. These animals that allow limited reproduction of the virus without becoming sick are called reservoirs. In the case of the coronavirus responsible for SARS, the reservoir was the civets and in the case of the MERS coronavirus, the camels and dromedaries. With these data in mind, it is certain that the first victim of this new epidemic was infected by being in close contact with a wild animal and not necessarily within the Wuhan market. That is why the Chinese authorities have banned the trafficking and sale of wild animals.
For a virus from an animal to infect us, it has to go through a series of mutations that allow it to infect and replicate in human cells. Initially, these mutations allow the virus to "jump" from the animal to the human. However, infection is poor and human-to-human transmission is rare. For the pathogen to be transmitted smoothly from human to human, the virus needs to acquire new modifications in its genome. When this happens, an epidemic can emerge. Sometimes viruses acquire other mutations that further increase their ability to infect. The problem is that our immune system is not prepared to fight the new pathogen; that is, we do not have specific defenses against the disease it produces.
Analysis of the 2019-nCoV genome also suggests that this new virus is a "hybrid". On the one hand, it is clearly related to coronaviruses that live in bats, like the virus that causes SARS. On the other hand, it was found that a fraction of its genome arises from another coronavirus present in an animal species yet to be identified. The fraction involved is precisely the one that has to do with the elements that form the peaks of the virus and that plays a crucial role in the first steps of the infection.
A multidisciplinary group of Chinese researchers suggested that snakes could be that reservoir, but their conclusions were soon shown to be premature. Recently, Drs. Liu-Chen and Chen published an analysis of pangolin viruses in the journal Viruses and found coronaviruses very similar to 2019- nCoV, suggesting that the reservoir may be this small mammal illegally trafficked into China for use in that country's traditional medicine. Pangolins were not on the lists of animals sold at the Wuhan seafood market, perhaps because their trafficking is punishable by 10 years in prison.
How dangerous is the new coronavirus?
One of the problems with this new epidemic is not only that the symptoms of the disease vary greatly, but also that the time in which they occur changes: in some of those infected the symptoms occur after two days and in others up to 14 days. To make things difficult, at first patients have symptoms that can easily be mistaken for the flu: fever and cough, often accompanied by muscle pain, headache, and fatigue. Elderly patients or those with an underlying disease such as diabetes or hypertension may have difficulty breathing and even need mechanical help to do so. In the worst case, the infection is fatal.
There is not much to do in the face of a 2019-nCoV infection, as there are no specific antivirals or vaccines. It is up to doctors to mitigate the severity of symptoms and allow the immune system to fight off the invading pathogen. Still, some Chinese researchers are testing all sorts of antivirals to determine if any help is available, including those that work against the Ebola virus. The WHO and many researchers around the world are working against the clock to develop a vaccine, but it is estimated that it will take at least a year to be ready.
How it is transmitted
The main mode of transmission is from person to person, by inhalation of the droplets and aerosols that we expel when we cough and sneeze, but also when we speak and breathe.
In a recent investigation, laser lighting was used to count the droplets expelled by a person. Researchers counted 2,600 droplets per second when the person spoke and found that speaking louder increased the size and number of the droplets. They then calculated that one minute of speaking very loudly can produce at least 1,000 virus-carrying droplets.
According to another study, the largest droplets settle down by gravity after about four minutes, but smaller droplets can remain suspended for eight to 14 minutes, like cigarette smoke. Thus, it is much more dangerous to be with other people in an enclosed space than in the open air. A study in China found that out of 7,324 infections, only one occurred outdoors, and according to a Japanese study, the chances of getting infected indoors are almost 19 times higher.
Another Chinese study of a COVID-19 outbreak in a restaurant showed that an infected person (but still without symptoms) infected nine more people at other tables because the air conditioning system recirculated the viral load aerosols expelled by that person through talking and breathing. The distribution of those infected in the restaurant revealed that they were in the path of the air conditioning current. Surveillance cameras showed that those infected had no direct contact with patient zero. Neither the other 80 customers nor the eight waiters were infected despite the fact that the premises were small and had no windows.
In an outbreak in a 19-story building in busy downtown Seoul, the person who caused the outbreak was identified as working in a call-center on the 11th floor. More than 1,000 people lived in the building, sharing elevators and common areas. But the team that studied the outbreak found that of the 87 people who tested positive for COVID-19 throughout the building, 84 worked in the call-center. And of these, 79 spent their workday crowded together without ventilation in the telephone area. On the rest of the 11th floor, only five people were infected and on the other 18 floors only three.
These cases suggest that, in fact, the main form of transmission is not the surfaces one touches (elevator buttons, door handles), but the respiratory droplets that float in the air. This is why it is necessary to use mouth guards and to keep your distance both indoors and outdoors. Outdoors it is better to walk than to stand still in the same place as other people. Air currents help disperse the droplets and thus dilute the particle load with viruses.
Reactivate the society
The measures being recommended by health authorities generally tend to avoid overcrowding in enclosed places. Thus, to return to workplaces, for example, it will be necessary to recondition them by distancing the workplaces and separating them with screens, dividing employees into teleworking shifts (where possible), and installing ventilation systems that do not recirculate the air. It is recommended to use mouth guards and not to share materials. Meetings should be brief, infrequent, with few people, keeping a healthy distance and speaking quietly with mouth guards. People should not share food, drink, or eating utensils and should continue to wash their hands frequently.
Without vaccination, there will be no return to normal
Two types of preparations are being tested: the traditional ones, with virus fragments, attenuated viruses or deactivated viruses, and the genetic ones, with sections of SARS-CoV-2 genetic material. In both cases, the preparation will have to be tested first in cell cultures and in animals to see if it is not too toxic, and if it triggers a sufficient immune response. Then it will be tested on people, with several stages to establish that it has no harmful side effects and that the immunizing effect is robust, as well as to determine the correct dose. Finally, it will have to be approved by health authorities, mass-produced, and undergo quality control tests.
All of this will take time. It is estimated that there could be a vaccine by the summer of 2021. In the meantime, we have to integrate the protective measures we have become accustomed to in our lives. Lopez-Gatell compared it to what happened after the 1985 earthquakes: today we have internalized the "I don't run, I don't scream, I don't push", as well as the periodic simulations. They are now part of everyday life. So, also hygiene measures, distancing and the use of mouthguards have to be integrated into a new normal.
And what do I do?
The future of the epidemic does not only depend on government actions; our personal actions can dramatically determine the course of the epidemic and the recommendations of the WHO are simple: wash your hands frequently, do not touch your eyes, nose or mouth with dirty hands, when you cough or sneeze cover your mouth with a tissue or the inside angle of your elbow, do not come into contact with people you know are sick. If you get sick, you and your family should take the WHO guidelines very seriously.
Hospitals should redouble their procedures to prevent nosocomial transmission of the virus as many of the SARS and MERS infections occurred in these institutions and it appears that the new epidemic is no exception. In fact, Dr. Li Wenliang, who first raised the alarm about 2019-nCoV, died from the infection in early February.
By Mexicanist, Sources: daily and weekly updates from Hugo Lopez-Gatell, Mexican Undersecretary of Prevention and Health Promotion. And with information about the new coronavirus from Dr. Miguel Ángel Cevallos, a frequent collaborator of ¿Cómo ves? He is a doctor in basic biomedical research and a specialist in bacterial molecular genetics. He works at the Center of Genomic Sciences at UNAM. Also, Sergio de Régules who is the scientific coordinator of ¿Cómo ves? and winner of the National Award for the Dissemination of Science "Alejandra Jáidar" 2019.