Young and poor in Mexico, survey
In Mexico, for 2017, there were 17.5 million young people living in poverty, who are in a situation of high vulnerability and social exclusion, their problems have multiple structural causes and manifest themselves in different ways in the lives of young people; for this reason, this social group during 2018 was the subject of analysis by a group of researchers from the Center for Research and Higher Studies in Social Anthropology, the Dr. José María Luis Mora Research Institute, and the San Luis School.
In order to carry out this research, the financial support of Conacyt was available. The project used a conceptual-interpretative framework derived from anthropology, history and public policies, taking as a unit of study low-income households, in which the life history of 74 young people was analyzed, considering four variables: education, employment, health and violence (which is in bold so stay); young people were classified into two groups (15-19 and 20-24 years); The research was carried out in 13 states: Baja California, Mexico City, Chiapas, State of Mexico, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Michoacán, Nayarit, Nuevo León, Oaxaca, San Luis Potosí, Sonora and Veracruz.
It was found that the causes for which young Mexicans are in a situation of exclusion and vulnerability are diverse: in the education variable, school dropout was the main problem identified, which generally happens in the baccalaureate. The main cause is the economic problems in the home, although there were also cases of hyperactive young people who leave school because they did not find the teaching-learning processes useful, as well as the need to enter to work to contribute to household expenses.
In the variable health, another cause that violates and excludes the present and future life situation of young people in Mexico is pregnancy at an early age, before age 20, assume responsibilities for which they have no preparation, life as a couple; seek income for the sustenance of the home and educate the children; young people were identified with little harmony as a couple, precarious economic situation, little communication, routine and monotonous life, constant and definitive separations, family breakdown and even violence.
A third variable analyzed was the employment of young people, which is carried out under precarious conditions, linked to activities where physical force is used, actions linked to the home, or the maquiladora industry in the case of women; their jobs are characterized by being informal, unstable, with low wages, without access to work benefits and receiving mistreatment by those who employ them; a good part of young people see illegal jobs as normal, such as the sale of drugs or the sale of stolen goods.
The environment where these young people live, as the fourth explanatory variable, is that of insecurity and violence, where young people are more victims than generators of it; the environment of precariousness and marginalization generate the conditions for them to participate in prohibited activities generated in organized crime; In this research it was found that young people in poverty suffer acts of violence, not only in the streets but also at home, this is how they suffer the loss of family and friends, even many of them lived the forced displacement of their children. Communities.
This research found that the presence of an environment of insecurity and violence, low educational levels, teenage pregnancy, and job insecurity have generated a public problem of great dimensions, which can be defined as 17.5 million young people, between 15 and 24 years old , they live in a situation of exclusion and vulnerability; exclusion of a quality education and health system from a well-paid job; so they are a sector of society highly vulnerable to the consumption of alcohol and drugs, the entry of illegal activities and the violence generated by organized crime.
The manifestations of this public problem are multiple, but the following stand out: an average education of 9.1 years, that is, high school level; the first pregnancy on average occurs at age 18; 22.1% of young people do not study or work, jobs with precarious salaries; The problem is more serious in women. These conditions generate that in the young people the consumption of drugs and alcohol is presented, as a way of evading their reality, but above all, they live in a situation of affliction.
The public problem of young people is complex, has multiple determinants and manifests itself in different ways, which is the product of structural causes, where the main social institutions have failed: the family does not generate the emotional and values for a harmonious life; the school does not transmit the information and skills to carry their social and economic activities; the government has excluded them from their public policies.
In summary: Young Mexicans are in a situation of exclusion and social vulnerability, it is a complex public problem, which has multiple causes and manifestations, public policy should focus on their education, providing information, knowledge and useful skills that help transform their lives, which allows them to perform better in their daily lives and in their entry into the labor market, but above all that contributes to forming the human capital that Mexico's development demands.
via Cronica Jalisco