Unlike the political transition that took place in 2000 after the victory of Vicente Fox, a fact that put an end to a 70-year-old regime, the election of Andrés Manuel López Obrador on July 1, 2018 did not make the Freedom House will improve the note of liberties to Mexico in its Freedom in the World Index 2019.
Mexico binds 9 years with a "partially free" country rating, according to Freedom House 2019
In the 2001 edition of the index, which measures the state of political rights and civil liberties in the countries, Mexico substantially improved its score. It went from 3.5 of the 1999 measurement to 2.5, on a scale that goes from 1 to 7, in which 1 is "free", and 7 indicates "less free". The election of Vicente Fox in the presidential elections of 2000 in Mexico was one of the reasons that the analysts of the non-governmental organization Freedom House decided to give a vote of confidence and improve the score of the country, which made the leap from the group of "countries partially free "to that of" free countries ".
"In Mexico, the promises to end corruption and confront the violent drug gangs also pushed the left-populist Andrés Manuel López Obrador to the presidency, although he still has to explain how he will achieve his goals," the study indicates.
Countries in the range from 1 to 2.5 are considered "free"; from 3 to 5 points is the range for the "partially free", and from 5.5 to 7 the country or territory is considered "'not free'".
In the 2019 edition of Freedom in the World, the election of a government whose objectives fall on the left side of the political spectrum failed to replicate the optimism shown by the election of Vicente Fox in 2000. The country maintained its 3.0 grade. , what qualification obtained since 2011, as a result of the failed strategy of fighting drug trafficking undertaken by the then PAN candidate Felipe Calderón, which has left thousands dead and the reduction of civil liberties and violation of human rights because of The insecurity.
All in all, the result obtained by Mexico is in line with global trends. The executive summary of the Freedom in the World 2019 states that freedoms in the world have spun 13 years downward according to their measurements, and that qualifies as a setback of the "democratizing wave" that began at the end of the decade of the seventies. On the other hand, the advance of regimes contrary to democratic values throughout the world, explains the study, is understood to be the high rates of inequality that are registered all over the world, and that lead the voters to favor with their vote to candidates who promise themselves as anti-regime, hoping to reverse the problem.
Countries such as Syria, North Korea, and Saudi Arabia received the lowest ratings in the freedom index. By contrast, Finland, Norway, Sweden, and Canada lead the group of countries with the highest freedoms. Mexico is situated between the "free" and the "non-free" countries.
The study was published online this Tuesday, but the explanatory note that usually accompanies the results of each country, and that presents the argumentation for them until the publication of this note had not been integrated. Instead, El Economista offers a review of the explanatory notes for the studies of the previous years, which allow seeing the evolution of the country's results in the index.
1999, note 3.5, "partially free". Mexico, with a party in government for more than 70 years
The filmmakers of the first edition of the Freedom in the World gave Mexico a grade of 3.5, right in the middle of the two poles of "free" and "less free". The country exhibited then, in the opinion of the Freedom House, tendencies to democratic improvements, after a decade of reforms and the action of civil society, which had been formed in the same period. The burden was then a regime that had governed the country for 70 years continuously, through the Institutional Revolutionary Party, which had been forced to hold an internal election to choose its candidate for the 2000 presidential election, in contrast to the practice of "dedazo", that is to say, that the President of the Republic was the sole voter of the party.
2001, note 2.5. Mexico enters the group of "free" countries
Mexico entered the range of countries that the Freedom House measures considered "free", after the result of the presidential election that gave Vicente Fox the winner with 42.5% of the vote, and that meant the electoral defeat of the PRI, party that had ruled for more than 70 consecutive years to the country. This political transition, coupled with the modernization of the country's institutions that incorporated democratic changes thanks to the action of society, were the facts that we pondered the non-governmental organization to improve outstandingly the note of freedom of the country in more than one point, and that placed him among the "free" countries.
2003-2006, note 2.0. High expectations about the transition government
Anti-corruption initiatives, the opening of secret government archives and the investigation of past political crimes, former President Luis Echeverría was questioned by a special prosecutor on the possible charges of genocide resulting from the student massacres of 1968 and 1971, and the capture and imprisonment of drug lords, are the reasons that Freedom House had optimistic prospects on the democratic progress of Mexico under the government of Vicente Fox, who still kept alive the high expectations that his election generated among Mexicans and international markets. The 2.0 note released for the first time in 2003, would accompany the PAN government until the end of his presidential term.
2007, lower the grade to 2.5. Organized crime and a questioned presidential election
The box-cut of Vicente Fox's six-year term, which had generated high expectations, indicated that the PAN left the country in what could ultimately be understood as the beginnings of a failed strategy that would leave thousands dead and disappeared. With drug trafficking cartels fighting over the territories of the northern border and eight journalists killed because of their research into links of complicity between police apparatuses and organized crime gangs, coupled with a presidential election full of irregularities that questioned the victory of candidate Felipe Calderón, Freedom House decided to lower Mexico's score from 2.0 to 2.5.
2011, lower note 3.0. The failed strategy against the narco affects the freedoms
With 15,000 people killed in acts of violence associated with the fight against drug cartels undertaken by the Felipe Calderón government, high rates of official corruption and press freedom threatened both by organized crime and by officials, Freedom House returned to Mexico set of "partially free" countries, 10 years after having left this classification for the first time, and that will not stop in the subsequent years.
2018, the grade remains at 3.0 for eight consecutive years
The corruption cases of several high-ranking officials, mainly of the PRI -including President Enrique Peña Nieto-, the paralysis of the creation of an anti-corruption system, the espionage perpetrated by the State against journalists and civil society actors, the highest rates of murders registered since the beginning of the fight against drug trafficking, high levels of inequality, among other reasons, were the arguments presented by the Freedom House to keep the note of Mexico and keep it in the group of "partially free" nations .
The Freedom House is a non-governmental organization founded in 1941 and is headquartered in Washington DC, United States. It conducts research and promotes democracy, political freedom, and human rights, and publishes every year, since 1999, the Freedom in the World. 80% of its funding comes from the government of the United States, which is why analysts have questioned the impartiality of the results of their studies, noting that this high reliance on resources place the independence of the organization under suspicion.