10 healthy diet tips for vegetarians

The purpose of healthy nutrition advice for vegetarians is to inform the basic principles of a balanced diet for healthy adults with moderate physical activity following a vegetarian diet. These recommendations include dietary advice for ovolacto-vegetarians who have excluded meat, fish and seafood from their diet, as well as foods based on meat, bones, fish or seafood.

How to get the best nutrition following a vegetarian diet
How to get the best nutrition following a vegetarian diet

Nutrition is one of the main prerequisites for human health. Therefore, no matter what diet you choose, it must be balanced, varied and healthy to provide your body with the necessary energy, nutrients, vitamins, and minerals. Insufficient intake of nutrients, vitamins, and minerals in the long term can adversely affect the body's function, such as weakened immunity, nervous system disorders, development of osteoporosis, anemia (anemia), weight loss or weight gain.

Moderate physical activity is one that accelerates the heart rate, creates a feeling of warmth and mild shortness of breath, such as walking, cycling, physical work, swimming, gardening, dancing. The World Health Organization recommends moderate physical activity for at least 30 minutes at least five times a week.

Wholesome and well-considered vegetarian diets provide the body with the energy and nutrients it needs, but there are also various risks, such as protein intake, omega-3 fatty acids, and vitamin B12. Any change in the diet that excludes any food from the diet can affect human health. In order to adapt the principles of vegetarian nutrition to individual needs, individual consultation with a specialist such as a dietician or a nutritionist would be advisable.

10 tips for a healthy vegetarian diet

1. Adopt a varied and balanced daily diet that is appropriate to your age, physical activity, and other individual needs.

2. Include 3 basic meals and 2 to 3 snacks a day to provide your body with the necessary amounts of energy, protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, and minerals, as well as satiety throughout the day.

3. Intake at least 3 servings of vegetables and 2 to 3 servings of fruits and berries a day, half the amount of vegetables included freshly selected.

4. Eat an average of 4-8 servings of cereals and potatoes a day, at least half choose whole wheat products.

5. Consume 2-3 servings of milk and dairy products per day (fermented dairy products, cottage cheese, cheese) and 3-4 servings of protein-rich foods - legumes, including soy products, eggs, nuts, and seeds.

6. Include a reasonable amount of fat in your diet by taking 2 to 4 servings of fat daily, mostly choosing cold-pressed vegetable oils.

7. Drink 2 to 2.5 liters of liquid per day, including an average of 1.5 liters of clean water. 

8. Reduce the intake of foods (such as semi-finished products) with high added salt, sugar and fat.

9. Ensure adequate intake of products that are a source of iron, zinc, vitamin B12, iodine, vitamin D and calcium.

10. In case of doubt, consult a family doctor, nutritionist or nutritionist to prevent any deficiency in nutrients, vitamins, and minerals.

Vegetarians eat a balanced diet with plenty of nutrients
Vegetarians eat a balanced diet with plenty of nutrients

1. Adopt a varied and balanced daily diet that is appropriate to your age, physical activity, and other individual needs.

Vegetarianism is a human-made diet that includes mainly plant-based products. Such dietary choices can be made for a variety of reasons, such as religious, environmental, philosophical or ethical reasons. Although vegetarian diets often have additional health benefits, it should be noted that a healthy omnivorous diet rich in plant-based products offers the same health benefits.

The main types of vegetarianism are:

Includes: Vegetable products, milk and milk products, honey, eggs

Excludes: meat, fish, seafood

Ovo-lacto vegetarianism

Includes: Vegetable products, honey, fish and seafood

Excludes: meat, eggs, milk and dairy products

Pescetarianism

Includes: Vegetable products, honey, eggs and poultry

Excludes: red meat, fish, milk and dairy products

Pollo vegetarianism

Includes: Vegetable products, milk and milk products, honey

Excludes: eggs, meat, fish, seafood

Lacto vegetarianism

Includes: Vegetable products, eggs and honey

Excludes: meat, fish, seafood, milk and dairy products

Ovo vegetarianism

Includes: Vegetable products

Excludes: meat, fish, seafood, honey, eggs, milk and dairy products

Veganism

In order to get all the nutrients you need during the day, it's important to plan your diet by including products from all food categories in the right proportions throughout the day. 3 main meals and 2 to 3 snacks a day are recommended. This is especially important in a vegetarian diet to provide enough energy and nutrients, as well as a feeling of satiety throughout the day. Remember that long intervals between meals may lead to a desire for unhealthy foods high in salt, sugar, and fat.

Regardless of the type of diet you choose, healthy foods are based on plant-based products such as vegetables, fruits and berries, whole grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds. However, animal products such as eggs, milk, and dairy products, in some cases fish and seafood or poultry, are also important in the vegetarian diet. Including a variety of foods in the right amounts reduces the risk of not taking in enough vitamins and minerals such as vitamin B12, calcium, zinc.

In order to ensure satiety for a longer period of time, it is advisable to include legumes and whole-grain products in meals, for example, in soups, stews, bean paste, legume - vegetable patties. Also, remember to include milk and dairy products as well as protein sources in your daily diet according to the recommended total portion intake.

It is advisable to avoid foods high in salt, sugar and fat, especially saturated fatty acids, such as sweetened drinks, confectionery. It is also advisable to exclude foods containing trans fats.

2. Include 3 basic meals and 2 to 3 snacks a day to provide your body with the necessary amounts of energy, protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and minerals, as well as satiety throughout the day.

Foods are composed of nutrients - carbohydrates, proteins and fats, and contain vitamins, minerals and biologically active substances. To ensure that you have enough energy and nutrients in your daily diet, it is advisable to include the appropriate number of servings from all food groups in your daily meal:

at least 3 servings of vegetables;

2 - 3 servings of fruits and berries;

4-8 servings of cereals, potatoes;

2 to 3 servings of milk and dairy products;

3 to 4 servings of protein foods (legumes, eggs, nuts and seeds);

2-4 servings of fat (fat) products.

The amount of portions is individually tailored to the individual's age, physical activity and health.

It is advisable to plan your main meals with the so-called "plate principle", where one third of the plate is filled with vegetables, fruits and berries, the other third is for carbohydrate products (eg cereals and whole grains, potatoes).

On the other hand, a slightly smaller proportion (about one quarter) is devoted to milk and dairy products, as well as protein foods (legumes, including soya and soy products, eggs, nuts and seeds). For the remainder, it is advisable to include fatty foods, with a preference for unrefined, cold pressed vegetable oils. In addition, remember to take in enough water.

3. Intake an average of 4-8 servings of cereals and potatoes a day, at least half choose whole grains.

Carbohydrates are mainly needed for energy supply. It is recommended that they provide 55-60% of the total energy intake (275-300g of carbohydrates per day/approximate amount in case of daily intake of 2000 kcal.). To get enough carbohydrates, it is important to include cereal products such as oatmeal, pearl barley, barley groats, buckwheat, whole grain bread as well as potatoes and enough vegetables and fruits in your daily routine.

Carbohydrates are also a source of fiber. Fiber is a complex carbohydrate that is neither broken down nor absorbed by the small intestine. However, depending on the type, fiber can be partially or completely processed in the colon. Fiber improves the intestinal microflora, slows down the absorption of glucose, has a positive effect on blood cholesterol, promotes bowel movements and more. The recommended dietary fiber intake for healthy adults with moderate physical activity is 30-35g / day.

Cereals and their products, as well as potatoes, are the main source of carbohydrates and contain various vitamins and minerals. The recommended amount of these products in the diet depends on various factors, such as gender, physical activity, and body weight. For women of normal weight (Based on body mass index (mass (kg): (height (m)) 2), the preferred index is between 18.5 and 25.) and moderate physical activity, 4-6 servings a day are recommended, for men 5-8 servings.

Most of the nutrients and fiber are contained in the outer layer of the grain and germ particles. Therefore, it is essential to take wholegrain products such as barley, whole grain oat flakes, rye bread, brown rice, buckwheat, which will provide not only energy but also vitamins and minerals.

Particularly in vegetarian diets, it should be noted that whole grains are not only a source of energy and fiber, but also of protein, essential fatty acids, B vitamins, vitamin E, zinc, magnesium, etc. source of minerals and vitamins. At least half, but preferably most, of the daily cereal products should be ingested with whole grains.

Recommended daily grains and cereal products

Oat flakes, buckwheat, barley groats, pearl barley, whole grain pasta, brown rice, wild rice, millet, quinoa, amaranth, triticale, bulgur, whole grain semolina, rye bread, whole wheat bread with at least 6g of fiber per 100g of product.

Ocassional cereals and their derivatives

White bread, sweet and sour bread, white rice, corn grits, couscous, semolina, biscuits, instant porridge, sweetened breakfast cereals, etc.

4. Intake at least 3 servings of vegetables and 2 to 3 servings of fruits and berries a day, half the amount of vegetables included freshly selected.

Vegetables, fruits and berries are the foundation of any healthy diet. This group of foods enriches the diet with vitamins, minerals, fiber and biologically active substances that have beneficial and protective effects on the human body. Adults are recommended to have at least 3 servings of vegetables and 2 to 3 servings of fruits and berries a day, including this group of products in each meal.

Remember to consume at least half of the daily intake of fresh vegetables. It is advisable to include seasonal and possibly locally sourced vegetables, fruits and berries in your diet. Dried fruits are a concentrated and valuable source of minerals that are a valuable snack. However, remember that they contain a lot of natural sugars. Therefore, take the dried fruit into the diet in moderation, taking into account the recommended daily portion of the fruit.

In order to reduce the loss of vitamins, heat treatment is recommended with a small amount of water, in a closed container (with lid) or by steaming. It is recommended not to boil the products, but to heat them only until they are ready or almost ready.

Pay attention to the information on the food packaging as dried fruits, candies, for example, may contain added sugars, oils and food additives. On the other hand, canned vegetables, fruits and berries, such as pickled vegetables, compotes, jams, are usually high in salt or sugar and are not recommended in the daily diet.

To increase your daily intake of vegetables, fruits and berries, we recommend:

• Add sandwiches of lettuce, tomato or cucumber, chopped greens to the sandwich.

• Add fresh or dried fruit and berries to the porridge.

• For dessert, choose fresh fruits, fruit salads, fruit-free yogurt or cottage cheese, fruit and berry soups.

• Choose between freshly sliced ​​vegetables - carrots, chives, kohlrabi, cauliflower, etc., between meals. with homemade sauce or legume paste (humus), fresh fruit or a handful of dried fruits and berries.

• Enrich your dishes with herbs (eg dill, parsley, basil, sage, oregano, rosemary, lemongrass and thyme, herb pesto).

• Include fresh vegetable salad in meals.

• Eat root stew or vegetable soup several times a week.

• Try non-traditional vegetables for your country (celery stalk, parsnip, Jerusalem artichoke, etc.).

• Prepare a healthy winter supply (frozen vegetables, fruits and berries without added salt and sugar, and dried apples, pears, and other fruits and berries).

5. Intake 2-3 servings of milk and dairy products per day (fermented dairy products, cottage cheese, cheese) and 3-4 servings of protein-rich foods - legumes, including soy products, eggs, nuts and seeds.

Proteins are essential for the normal functioning of the immune system and for the body's essential substances - hormones, enzymes, collagen, keratin, plasma proteins, etc. building. Consequently, proteins help maintain healthy skin, muscles and organs.

Using a variety of plant products, eggs, milk and dairy products in sufficient quantities will take in the necessary protein. The recommended daily amount of protein is 10-15% of the total energy intake (on average 0.8-1g of protein per kilogram of body weight). The exact amount of protein required can be determined by the health care practitioner, depending on several factors, such as exercise, age, and health.

Proteins are made of amino acids. Eight of these are essential amino acids (isoleucine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, valine, lysine) that are not produced in the body and must therefore be taken with food. In order to provide the human body with the most important amino acids, there must be enough protein from various foods in the diet.

Essential amino acids can be absorbed by combining different foods, such as:

- stewed beans with a slice of bread,

- whole grain cheese with cheese,

- brown rice with lentils or beans,

- humus with bread and vegetables,

- bean or pea soup with bread,

- cheese or cottage cheese with bread,

- whole grain muesli with milk,

- eggs containing cereals or potatoes.

The main sources of protein in the vegetarian diet are eggs, pulses, including soy and soy products, dairy products, nuts and seeds.

Certain foods do not contain all the essential amino acids or have low levels of some amino acids, such as low levels of lysine in cereals and methionine in legumes. Therefore, it is important to combine foods with amino acid-complementary foods:

Milk and dairy products are important sources of protein, calcium, vitamins B2 and B12, iodine and zinc in the vegetarian diet. Additionally, fermented dairy products contain probiotic bacteria, which are essential for digestive processes. It is recommended to take 2-3 servings of milk and milk product per day.

If in some cases you are replacing milk with herbal drinks like soy, almonds, rice drinks, choose one that is enriched with calcium, iodine, vitamin D and has no added sugars. Also remember that herbal drinks are not usually a source of protein in the diet.

Other protein rich foods that are legumes, including soy products, eggs, nuts and seeds are recommended to take on average 3-4 portions per day.

Pulses are a particularly important source of daily protein in the vegetarian diet. Pulses are also a source of dietary fiber and some minerals (such as iron, zinc and calcium). However, it should be remembered that they also contain phytic acid, which interferes with the absorption of minerals.

It is advisable to germinate or soak the beans before cooking to promote iron absorption from the beans. Soaking legumes and boiling them for a longer time, and combining them with herbs such as cumin, fennel seeds, marjoram, etc., will reduce gas production and discomfort in the digestive tract.

In general, it is advisable to include different types of legumes in the diet - peas (eg Turkish peas, gray peas), beans (eg mottled, white, red, mung or Chinese beans) and lentils (eg brown, green, red, yellow lentils). Leguminous beans and green peas are not considered to be a source of protein in the diet.

Soybeans are one of the types of legumes. They are the only plant product that contains all eight essential amino acids and these beans contain B vitamins, minerals and phytoestrogens (phytoestrogens - flavonoids, which have a similar chemical structure to the human hormones estrogen). Therefore, soy is a valuable ingredient for vegetarians. Various soy products are available, such as tofu, soy drink, sprouted soybeans. It is recommended to include non-genetically modified soy in the diet.

Eggs contain biologically high protein and are a source of B group and fat soluble vitamins. Eggs form valuable combinations with other foods, such as potatoes, whole grains, to provide the essential amino acids. The recommended weekly egg consumption is individual and depends on other foods included in your diet, unless otherwise directed by your treating physician.

Nuts and seeds are a source of protein, high-quality fatty acids, vitamin E, and other vitamins and minerals that are essential in a vegetarian diet. Given the different composition of each type of nut and seed, it is advisable to take in as many types of nuts and seeds as possible. It is recommended not to use sweetened, salted and roasted nuts and seeds in the diet. It should also be remembered that nuts and seeds are high in fat, so they are high in energy, and their intake should be evaluated on an individual basis according to physical activity, body weight and state of health.

6. Include a reasonable amount of fat in your diet by taking 2 to 4 servings of fat daily, mostly choosing cold pressed vegetable oils.

Fat is an essential nutrient in the human diet. By their chemical structure, fats are composed of fatty acids, which can be saturated and unsaturated, which in turn are divided into monounsaturated (omega 9) and polyunsaturated (omega 3, omega 6) fatty acids. The recommended daily amount of fat is 25% - 30% of the total energy intake (56-67 g) / approximate amount when taking 2000kcal daily.

It is recommended that saturated fatty acids should not exceed 10% of the total energy intake. Table 3 shows the distribution of fats according to their nutritional needs. As part of the recommended daily intake of fat is usually taken with ready-to-eat foods, it is advisable to take an average of 2-4 servings of fat and fat-containing products (high-pressure vegetable oils, butter) per day for home cooking.

Fat breakdown by the use of the diet:

Very good / most common

Cold pressed crude vegetable oils (for example, linseed, walnut), seeds

Moderate / uncommon

Milk fat, animal fat, palm oil/fat, coconut oil

OK / common

Olive oil, nuts

Very Bad / off

Semi - hydrogenated vegetable fats containing trans - fatty acids

Unsaturated fats are necessary for the body's metabolic processes, such as thermoregulation and protective functions, as well as for the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins and are part of the cell membrane. The main sources of unsaturated fatty acids are olive oil, linseed, walnut, sunflower, hemp, wheat germ oil as well as walnuts, pumpkin seeds, ground linseed, avocado and egg yolk.

Omega-3 fatty acids, which are naturally present in vegetable oils, are important for the body's functioning, as well as significant amounts in the following foods - linseed, hemp seed, walnut, pumpkin seed, and more. Omega 3 fatty acids are very important for brain function, cardiovascular health. It is recommended that women take about 1.1 g a day and men 1.6 g a day.

Not all omega-3 fatty acids can be fully formed in the body, and some are naturally found mainly in fatty fish such as salmon, herring, herring, sardines, so omega-3 fatty acids may be insufficient in vegetarian diets.

Refined olive oil or rapeseed oil may be used for cooking and baking. On the other hand, unrefined cold pressed oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linseed, walnut, pumpkin seed oils are recommended for fresh use, such as in salads and ready meals. In addition, it should be remembered that unrefined cold pressed oil should be stored in a cool and dark place, as the oil oxidizes, becomes bitter and even harmful to health when exposed to light.

Saturated fats are a source of energy and promote the absorption of fat soluble vitamins A, E, D and K. The main sources of saturated fat in the diet are milk fat, animal fat, palm oil and coconut oil. Remember that if the fat is not fully utilized for energy, fat reserves will build up.

7. Drink 2 to 2.5 liters of liquid per day, including an average of 1.5 liters of clean water.

Water is the foundation of life and health. Adults are advised to take at least 2 to 2.5 liters of fluid (or 30 to 35 ml per kilogram of body weight), including 1.5 liters of drinking water. However, the amount of fluid ingested is individual and depends on several factors, such as gender, physical activity, health, and environmental temperature. In hot weather and during heavy loads, more water should be taken up.

It is advisable to drink the daily amount of water evenly distributed throughout the day. Lemon, strawberry, blueberry, kiwi, sliced ​​watermelon or melon, cucumber slices, ginger, rosemary, peppermint, basil, etc. can be added to facilitate the daily consumption of water. On hot summer days, pieces of fruit and chopped herb leaves can be frozen in ice cubes and added to water.

You can also drink vegetables, fruit juices, unsweetened fruit and herbal teas, but remember that simple drinking water is a must in your daily diet.

Thirst quenchers should not opt ​​for sweet non-alcoholic drinks such as lemonade, kvass, juice drinks, ice tea as they contain a lot of added sugar.

8. Reduce the intake of foods (such as semi-finished products) with high added salt, sugar and fat.

A maximum of 5 g (about 1 teaspoon) of salt per day is recommended. Excessive intake of salt in the diet can promote high blood pressure, affect kidney function and retain water in the body. In order to limit the daily use of salt, it is advisable to avoid foods containing 1.25 g or more of salt per 100 g of product, such as semi-finished products, pickled and salted foods, broth cubes, dry soups, vegetarian creams (such as soybeans, Turkish peas, vegetables), individual breakfast cereals and other high-salt foods. When preparing meals at home, it is advisable to use different herbs and spices without the addition of salt for flavor enhancement.

It is recommended that you take in sugar no more than 10% of your total daily energy intake, which is on average 50g or 12 teaspoons of sugar. For its part, the World Health Organization recommends up to 5% of the total daily energy intake of sugar, equivalent to 25 grams or 6 teaspoons of sugar per day, to promote health. It should be emphasized that most of the sugars (fructose syrup, corn syrup, fructose, dextrose, cane sugar, malt, molasses, honey, etc.) are ingested by the pre/manufactured, manufactured foods. Sweets, carbonated drinks, sweets, confectionery, yogurt with additives, various prepared sauces, etc. are usually high in sugar.

Tips to reduce salt and sugar intake:

- Choose as fresh food as possible or minimally processed.

- Compare foods of the same product group and select those with less added salt and less sugar.

- Use different types of spices and herbs in your diet to enrich the taste of the food.

It is also advisable to limit high-fat foods. On the other hand, foods containing trans fats (partially hydrogenated vegetable fats) should be avoided at all.

Trans fatty acids are produced by the industrial partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils as well as by heating fats and cooking foods at high temperatures (> 220C). Trans fats are most commonly found in milk and vegetable fat blends, sweets, confectionery, cottage cheese, fast food products (French fries, burgers, etc.) and other products that use partially hydrogenated vegetable fats. When purchasing foods, carefully read the information on the food label. You should not choose foods that are labeled as using "partially hydrogenated vegetable fats".

9. Ensure adequate intake of products that are a source of iron, zinc, vitamin B12, iodine, vitamin D and calcium.

Iron provides oxygen to tissues and participates in important biochemical reactions, and promotes the normal functioning of the immune system. Iron deficiency in the body usually occurs without specific symptoms of a medical condition. It is therefore important to consult your health care provider for proper nutrition and any necessary laboratory tests.

Iron is present in sufficient quantities in the vegetarian diet, but in a form that is difficult to obtain because it is less absorbed from plant products than from animal products. Therefore, vegetarians need to eat more iron-containing foods than omnivores. The major sources of iron in the vegetarian diet are legumes, including soy and soy products, oat flakes, buckwheat, quinoa, amaranth, cashew nuts, almonds, sesame seeds, pumpkin seeds, apricots, dates, raisins and figs.

Tips to promote iron absorption:

- Iron products should be used in combination with vitamin C and organic acid products such as parsley, citrus fruits, black currants, peppers, kiwi fruit.

- Avoid including tea and coffee in your meals, as the tannins present in it prevent the absorption of iron.

- Pulses, cereals and seeds are recommended to be soaked or heat treated to promote iron absorption.

Zinc participates in many biochemical reactions and is composed of various enzymes and insulin, as well as stabilizes protein structure, participates in immunological processes and is required for hormone synthesis. The main sources of zinc in vegetarian diet are cheese, eggs, pulses, including soy and soy products, pecans, cashew nuts, pumpkin seeds, sesame seeds (toast or tahini), sprouted grains, rye bread, oatmeal, brown rice, amaranth, etc.

Tips to promote zinc absorption:

- Before cooking the legumes, soak them or use canned legumes without added salt.

- Fresh germinated pulses, cereals and seeds may be used in the diet.

- Include vegetables and fruits that contain vitamin C and organic acids in your meals.

Iodine is a component of thyroid hormones that helps regulate metabolism and growth and helps maintain many organs. Iodine deficiency can cause thyroid problems. The main sources of iodine in the vegetarian diet are milk and dairy products, seaweed products (eg kelp, sea cabbage, seaweed) and iodised salt.

Calcium provides healthy bone and tooth formation, as well as muscle function and blood clotting. Insufficient calcium intake reduces bone density and increases the risk of osteoporosis. A healthy vegetarian diet, which includes all four food groups, will provide enough calcium. The main sources of calcium in the vegetarian diet are milk and dairy products, almonds, Brazil nuts, sesame seeds (pumpkin seeds), pumpkin seeds, amaranth, oatmeal, dried apricots, figs, soybeans, broccoli, cabbage, courgette, fennel and parsley.

Tips to promote calcium absorption:

- Provide enough vitamin D.

- Restrict salt intake (salt promotes calcium excretion).

- Limit the intake of caffeine, especially during meals (the caffeine present in tea, coffee, energy drinks, non-alcoholic sweetened drinks, etc. prevents calcium absorption).

- Be physically active (reduce the risk of osteoporosis).

Vitamin D provides normal bone development, regulates calcium and phosphorus exchange and absorption in the gastrointestinal tract, and is essential for the immune system. The main sources of vitamin D in the vegetarian diet are mushrooms, incl. boletus, shiitake mushrooms, egg yolk, milk and dairy products and vitamin D enriched foods. Vitamin D is mainly formed in the skin by natural sunlight.

People in the Nordic countries have enough sun exposure between April and September for 5 to 15 minutes a day, two to three times a week, with their face and hands exposed. Depending on your skin type, ultraviolet radiation index and other recommendations for safe tanning, you should apply sunblock. It should also be remembered that it is not advisable to use a solarium to increase vitamin D levels.

Vitamin B12 participates in protein synthesis, production of red blood cells, development and function of the nervous system. Vitamin B12 is naturally present in animal products, so it is important to include eggs, milk and dairy products or foods fortified with vitamin B12.

Vegetarian diets are usually rich in folic acid, which can mask the symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency and delay the development of anemia, but it cannot prevent the damage to the nervous system when this vitamin deficiency continues for an extended period of time. Vitamin B12 deficiency may not manifest itself immediately after the withdrawal of animal products, but it may take several years, because the reserves of vitamin B12 stored in the liver and kidneys may last only a few years. The main sources of vitamin B12 in the vegetarian diet are milk and dairy products, eggs and mushrooms.

10. Remember: In case of doubt, consult your GP, nutritionist, or nutritionist to prevent vitamin and mineral deficiencies. 

Unjustified and excessive use of dietary supplements or medications can be harmful to your health. 

Nutritional supplements do not replace a complete and balanced diet!

Examples of vegetarian meals

FOR BREAKFAST:

1. Omelet with vegetables (eggs, paprika, onions, tomatoes, milk, olive oil), rye bread;

2. Oatmeal porridge with berries (oatmeal, water, milk, berries);

3. Cottage cheese with cucumber, onion, celery and yogurt, with added tomato;

4. Prose - pumpkin porridge (pumpkin, millet, water, milk, fresh cheese, linseed oil);

5. Whole wheat bread with sesame paste (tahini), fresh fruit or berry salad with yogurt.

FOR LUNCH:

1. Vegetable - bean stew, black bread;

2. Bean scones (beans, eggs, onion, carrot, breadcrumbs, spices), whole wheat lavash with vegetables and yogurt sauce (yogurt, garlic, parsley, basil);

3. Potato-vegetable pudding with egg (cauliflower, courgette, potatoes, tomato, carrot, leek, mushrooms, eggs, cheese), fresh vegetable salad;

4. Mushroom sauce with oven-baked potatoes and vegetables, cottage cheese;

5. Porridge - vegetable stew (pear, courgette, carrot, pepper, etc. vegetables) with a leek sauce (leek fried in olive oil with horseradish, cream).

FOR DINNER:

1. Potato-egg salad (potatoes, eggs, cucumber, onion, non-yogurt yogurt, linseed oil), black bread;

2. Beet soup with mushrooms and beans (beets, carrots, mushrooms, paprika, cabbage, barley grits, cooked beans, tomato, pasta, onion, spices), rye bread;

3. Mushroom risotto (rice, mushrooms, onions, vegetable broth, hard cheese, cream, olive oil), fresh vegetable salad with hemp oil;

4. Whole wheat pasta with broccoli (pasta, broccoli, cheese, Turkish peas, garlic, chili, etc. spices, olive oil, sesame seeds);

5. Vegetable stew with buckwheat (courgette, eggplant, buckwheat, onion, paprika, tomato paste, spices), fried tofu, fresh leaf-cucumber salad with pumpkin seeds and pumpkin oil.

FOR SNACKS:

1. Turkish pea pate or hummus with fresh vegetables;

2. A handful of nuts, seeds or dried fruits;

3. Unsweetened yogurt with fruit or berries, linseed, hemp seed;

4. Oatmeal cookies (bananas, oatmeal, peanut butter, seeds and dried fruits, cinnamon) with milk;

5. Tomato, mozzarella cheese, pesto.

In addition, remember to take enough liquid during the day!

Food groups are diverse: vegetables, fruits and berries, cereals, potatoes, milk and dairy products, legumes, eggs, nuts and seeds, fats, and liquid.

It is advisable to include foods from all product groups in the daily diet according to the portion size. When planning a daily meal, it is advisable to combine foods both inside and outside the product group, for example by including a fresh vegetable salad, ½ cup brown rice, 150g bean in yogurt sauce and freshly squeezed fruit juice.

By Mexicanist