Nutrition is one of the most important prerequisites for human health. Therefore, whatever diet a person chooses, must be balanced, varied, and healthy to provide the body with the energy, nutrients, vitamins, and minerals it needs. Inadequate intake of nutrients, vitamins, and minerals can have long-term negative effects on the body's functioning, such as weakening immunity, causing nervous disorders, contributing to osteoporosis, anemia (low blood weight), weight loss, or weight gain.

The healthy dietary recommendations for vegetarians aim to inform about the basic principles of a balanced diet for healthy adults with moderate physical activity, following a vegetarian diet. These recommendations include dietary advice for ovolacto-vegetarians who have excluded meat, fish, and seafood from their diet, as well as foods based on meat, bones, fish, or seafood. Moderate-intensity physical activity is that which increases the heart rate, produces a sensation of warmth and light breathlessness, such as walking, cycling, physical work, swimming, gardening, dancing. The World Health Organisation recommends at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity at least five times a week.

A complete and balanced vegetarian diet provides the energy and nutrients the body needs, but there are also risks such as insufficient intake of protein, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin B12. Any dietary change that excludes food from the diet can affect a person's health. To adapt the principles of a vegetarian diet to individual needs, individual consultation with a specialist, such as a dietician or a nutritionist, should be recommended.

Recommendations for a healthy vegetarian diet

Have a varied and balanced daily diet appropriate to age group, physical activity, and other individual needs.

Include 3 main meals and 2-3 snacks per day to provide the body with the energy, protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, and minerals, and satiety it needs throughout the day.

Have at least 3 portions of vegetables and 2-3 portions of fruit and berries per day, with half of the vegetables included being fresh.

Have an average of 4-8 portions of cereals and potatoes per day, with at least half of the included wholemeal products.

Have 2 - 3 portions of milk and dairy products per day (fermented dairy products, cottage cheese, cheese) and 3 - 4 portions of protein-rich foods - legumes including soy products, eggs, nuts, and seeds.

Include fat in your diet in moderation, with 2 to 4 servings of fatty foods per day, mostly cold-pressed vegetable oils.

Take in 2-2.5 liters of fluid per day, including an average of 1.5 liters of plain water.

Reduce your intake of foods (e.g. convenience foods) high in added salt, sugar, and fat.

Ensure adequate intake of foods that are sources of iron, zinc, vitamin B12, iodine, vitamin D, and calcium.

If you are unsure, consult your GP, dietician, or nutritionist to prevent deficiencies in certain nutrients, vitamins, and minerals.

Eat a varied and balanced daily diet appropriate to age group, physical activity, and other individual needs.

Vegetarianism is a diet chosen by humans that include mainly plant products. This dietary choice may be made for a variety of reasons, such as religious, environmental, philosophical, or ethical reasons. Although additional health benefits are often associated with a vegetarian diet, it should be pointed out that a healthy omnivorous diet, which includes a high proportion of plant products, offers just as many health benefits.

The main types of vegetarianism are:

Ovo-Lacto vegetarianism includes vegetable products, milk, and milk products, honey, eggs. Excludes meat, fish, seafood.

Pescetarianism includes vegetable products, honey, fish, and seafood. Excludes meat, eggs, milk, and dairy products.

Pollo vegetarianism includes vegetable products, honey, eggs, and poultry. Excludes red meat, fish, milk, and dairy products.

Lacto vegetarianism includes vegetable products, milk, and milk products, honey. Excludes eggs, meat, fish, seafood.

Ovo vegetarianism includes vegetable products, eggs, and honey. Excludes meat, fish, seafood, milk, and dairy products.

Veganism includes vegetable products. Excludes meat, fish, seafood, honey, eggs, milk, and dairy products.

To get all the nutrients you need during the day, it is important to plan your diet to include foods from all food groups in the right proportions. 3 main meals and 2-3 snacks per day are recommended. This is especially important in a vegetarian diet to ensure adequate energy and nutrients, as well as satiety throughout the day. Remember that long intervals between meals can lead to cravings for unhealthy foods high in added salt, sugar, and fat.

Whatever your diet, a healthy diet is based on plant foods, i.e. vegetables, fruit and berries, whole grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds. However, animal products such as eggs, milk, and dairy products, and in some cases fish and seafood or poultry meat are also important in a vegetarian diet. Including a variety of foods in the right quantities in the diet reduces the risk of not getting enough vitamins and minerals such as vitamin B12, calcium, and zinc.

To ensure longer-lasting satiety, it is recommended to include legumes and wholemeal products in meals, for example in pureed soups, stews, bean pastes, legume-vegetable fritters. Also remember to include milk and dairy products in your daily diet, as well as sources of protein according to the recommended total servings. It is advisable to avoid foods high in salt, sugar, and fat, especially saturated fatty acids, such as sweetened drinks and confectionery. It is also advisable to exclude foods containing trans-fatty acids.

Plan to include 3 main meals and 2-3 snacks per day to provide your body with the energy, protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, and minerals it needs to feel full throughout the day.

Foods are made up of nutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, as well as vitamins, minerals, and bioactive substances. To provide sufficient energy and nutrients in the daily diet, it is recommended to include an adequate number of portions from all food groups in all daily meals:

at least 3 servings of vegetables;
2-3 portions of fruit and berries;
4 - 8 servings of cereals, potatoes;
2-3 portions of milk and dairy products;
3-4 portions of protein-containing foods (legumes, eggs, nuts, and seeds);
2 - 4 servings of fats (fatty acids) foods containing fat.

The amount of portions is adapted to each individual depending on age, physical activity, and state of health. It is recommended to plan basic meals according to the 'plate principle', where one-third of the plate is filled with vegetables, fruit, and berries and the other third with carbohydrate-containing foods (e.g. cereals and wholemeal products, potatoes).

A slightly smaller proportion (about one-quarter) is for milk and dairy products and protein-containing foods (legumes, including soya and soya products, eggs, nuts, and seeds). The remaining part is recommended to include foods containing fat (lipids), preferably unrefined, cold-pressed vegetable oils. In addition, remember to take sufficient water.

Consume an average of 4-8 portions of cereals and potatoes per day, with at least half whole-grain products.

Carbohydrates are mainly needed for energy supply. It is recommended that they provide 55-60% of the total energy intake (275-300g of carbohydrates per day/approximate amount in case of daily intake of 2000 kcal.). To get enough carbohydrates, it is important to include cereal products such as oatmeal, pearl barley, barley groats, buckwheat, whole grain bread as well as potatoes, and enough vegetables and fruits in your daily routine.

Carbohydrates are also a source of fiber. Fiber is a complex carbohydrate that is neither broken down nor absorbed by the small intestine. However, depending on the type, fiber can be partially or completely processed in the colon. Fiber improves intestinal microflora, slows down the absorption of glucose, has a positive effect on blood cholesterol, promotes bowel movements, and more. The recommended dietary fiber intake for healthy adults with moderate physical activity is 30-35g / day.

Cereals and their products, as well as potatoes, are the main source of carbohydrates and contain various vitamins and minerals. The recommended amount of these products in the diet depends on various factors, such as gender, physical activity, and body weight. For women of normal weight (Based on body mass index (mass (kg): (height (m)) 2), the preferred index is between 18.5 and 25.) and moderate physical activity, 4-6 servings a day are recommended, for men 5-8 servings.

Most of the nutrients and fiber are contained in the outer layer of the grain and germ particles. Therefore, it is essential to take wholegrain products such as barley, whole grain oat flakes, rye bread, brown rice, buckwheat, which will provide not only energy but also vitamins and minerals.

Particularly in vegetarian diets, it should be noted that whole grains are not only a source of energy and fiber but also of protein, essential fatty acids, B vitamins, vitamin E, zinc, magnesium, etc. source of minerals and vitamins. At least half, but preferably most, of the daily cereal products should be ingested with whole grains.

Recommended daily grains and cereal products

Oat flakes, buckwheat, barley groats, pearl barley, whole grain pasta, brown rice, wild rice, millet, quinoa, amaranth, triticale, bulgur, whole grain semolina, rye bread, whole wheat bread with at least 6g of fiber per 100g of product.

Occasional cereals and their derivatives

White bread, sweet and sour bread, white rice, corn grits, couscous, semolina, biscuits, instant porridge, sweetened breakfast cereals, etc.

Include at least 3 portions of vegetables and 2-3 portions of fruit and berries 2 to 3 portions of fruit and vegetables per day, and half of the vegetables included should be fresh.

Vegetables, fruits, and berries are the foundation of any healthy diet. This group of foods enriches the diet with vitamins, minerals, fiber, and biologically active substances that have beneficial and protective effects on the human body. Adults are recommended to have at least 3 servings of vegetables and 2 to 3 servings of fruits and berries a day, including this group of products in each meal.

Remember to consume at least half of the daily intake of fresh vegetables. It is advisable to include seasonal and possibly locally sourced vegetables, fruits, and berries in your diet. Dried fruits are a concentrated and valuable source of minerals that are valuable snacks. However, remember that they contain a lot of natural sugars. Therefore, take the dried fruit into the diet in moderation, taking into account the recommended daily portion of the fruit.

To reduce the loss of vitamins, heat treatment is recommended with a small amount of water, in a closed container (with lid), or by steaming. It is recommended not to boil the products, but to heat them only until they are ready or almost ready.

Pay attention to the information on the food packaging as dried fruits, candies, for example, may contain added sugars, oils, and food additives. On the other hand, canned vegetables, fruits, and berries, such as pickled vegetables, compotes, jams, are usually high in salt or sugar and are not recommended in the daily diet.

To increase your daily intake of vegetables, fruit, and berries, it is recommended to:

Top the sandwich with lettuce leaves, tomato or cucumber slices, chopped herbs.

Add fresh or dried fruit and berries to the cottage cheese.

For dessert, choose fresh fruit, fruit salad, fruit with fat-free yogurt or cottage cheese, fruit, and berry soups.

For snacks between meals, choose fresh-cut vegetables - carrots, turnips, kohlrabi, cauliflower, etc. with homemade dressing or legume pate (hummus), fresh fruit, or a handful of dried fruit and berries.

Enrich dishes with herbs (e.g. dill, parsley, basil, sage, oregano, rosemary, lemon mint and thyme, herb pesto).

Include fresh vegetable salads in the meals.

Eat root stew or vegetable soup several times a week.

Try unconventional vegetables (celery stalks, parsnips, Jerusalem artichokes, etc.).

Prepare healthy winter supplies (frozen vegetables, fruit, and berries without added salt and sugar, dried apples, pears, and other fruit and berries).

Get 2-3 servings of milk and dairy products a day (fermented dairy products, cottage cheese, cheese) and 3-4 servings of protein-rich foods - legumes including soy products, eggs, nuts, and seeds.

Proteins are essential for the normal functioning of the immune system and the body's essential substances - hormones, enzymes, collagen, keratin, plasma proteins, etc. building. Consequently, proteins help maintain healthy skin, muscles, and organs.

Using a variety of plant products, eggs, milk, and dairy products in sufficient quantities will take in the necessary protein. The recommended daily amount of protein is 10-15% of the total energy intake (on average 0.8-1g of protein per kilogram of body weight). The exact amount of protein required can be determined by the health care practitioner, depending on several factors, such as exercise, age, and health.

Proteins are made of amino acids. Eight of these are essential amino acids (isoleucine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, valine, lysine) that are not produced in the body and must therefore be taken with food. To provide the human body with the most important amino acids, there must be enough protein from various foods in the diet.

Essential amino acids can be absorbed by combining different foods, such as:

Sautéed beans with a slice of bread,
Wholegrain pasta with cheese,
Brown rice with lentils or beans,
Hummus with bread and vegetables,
Bean or pea soup with bread,
Cheese or cottage cheese with bread,
Wholemeal muesli with milk,
Eggs with cereals or potatoes.

The main sources of protein in the vegetarian diet are eggs, pulses, including soy and soy products, dairy products, nuts, and seeds. Certain foods do not contain all the essential amino acids or have low levels of some amino acids, such as low levels of lysine in cereals and methionine in legumes. Therefore, it is important to combine foods with amino acid-complementary foods:

Milk and dairy products in a vegetarian diet are important sources of protein, calcium, vitamins B2 and B12, iodine, and zinc. In addition, fermented dairy products contain probiotic bacteria which are essential for digestive processes. It is recommended to consume 2-3 portions of milk and milk products per day. If you substitute milk with a plant-based drink such as soy, almond, rice in some cases, choose one that is fortified with calcium, iodine, vitamin D and has no added sugar. Also, remember that plant-based drinks are generally not a source of protein in the diet. Other protein-rich foods such as legumes, including soy products, eggs, nuts, and seeds are recommended at an average of 3-4 servings per day.

Legumes are a particularly important source of daily protein in a vegetarian diet. Legumes are also a source of fiber and some minerals (such as iron, zinc, and calcium) in the diet. However, it should be remembered that they also contain phytic acid, which interferes with the full absorption of minerals. To facilitate the absorption of iron from beans, it is advisable to sprout them or soak them before cooking. Soaking and longer cooking of legumes and combining them with herbs such as cumin, fennel seed, marjoram, etc. will reduce gas and discomfort in the digestive tract. In general, it is advisable to include different types of legumes in the diet, such as peas (e.g. Turkish peas, grey peas), beans (e.g. variegated, white, red, mung, or Chinese beans), and lentils (e.g. brown, green, red, yellow lentils). Pulses and green peas are not considered as a source of protein in the diet.

Soya beans are a type of legume. It is the only plant product that contains all eight essential amino acids and also contains B vitamins, minerals, and phytoestrogens6. Soya is therefore a valuable dietary component for vegetarians. A variety of soy products are available, such as tofu, soy drink, sprouted soybeans. It is recommended to include non-GMO soy in the diet. Eggs contain biologically valuable proteins and are a source of B and fat-soluble vitamins. To provide essential amino acids, eggs form valuable combinations with other foods such as potatoes, wholemeal products. The recommended weekly consumption of eggs is individual and depends on the other foods in your diet unless otherwise stated by your doctor.

Nuts and seeds are a dietary source of protein, high-quality fatty acids, vitamin E, and other vitamins and minerals, which are essential in a vegetarian diet. Given that each type of nut and seed has a different composition, it is recommended to consume as many different types of nuts and seeds as possible. It is recommended that sweetened, salted, and roasted nuts and seeds should be avoided in the diet. It should also be remembered that nuts and seeds are high in fat and therefore high in energy, and their intake should be assessed on an individual basis according to physical activity, body weight, and state of health.

Keep fats in the diet to a moderate amount, with 2-4 servings of fatty foods per day, mostly cold-pressed vegetable oils.

Fat is an essential nutrient in the human diet. By their chemical structure, fats are composed of fatty acids, which can be saturated and unsaturated, which in turn are divided into monounsaturated (omega 9) and polyunsaturated (omega 3, omega 6) fatty acids. The recommended daily amount of fat is 25% - 30% of the total energy intake (56-67 g) / approximate amount when taking 2000kcal daily. It is recommended that saturated fatty acids should not exceed 10% of the total energy intake. As part of the recommended daily intake of fat is usually taken with ready-to-eat foods, it is advisable to take an average of 2-4 servings of fat and fat-containing products (high-pressure vegetable oils, butter) per day for home cooking.

Fat breakdown by the use of the diet:

Very good/ Most common - Cold-pressed, unrefined vegetable oils (e.g. linseed, walnut), seeds.

Good/ Frequent - Olive oil, nuts.

Medium / Less often - Dairy fats, animal fats, palm oil/fat, coconut oil.

Very bad / Exclude - Partially hydrogenated vegetable fats containing trans-fatty acids.

Unsaturated fats are essential for the body's metabolic processes, such as thermoregulation and protective functions, as well as for the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins and as a component of cell membranes. The main sources of unsaturated fatty acids are olive oil, linseed, walnut, sunflower, hemp, and wheat germ oils, as well as walnuts, pumpkin seeds, ground linseed, avocado, and egg yolk. Omega-3 fatty acids, which are naturally present in vegetable oils, are important for the functioning of the body and are also found in significant amounts in foods such as flaxseed, hemp seed, walnuts, pumpkin seeds, etc. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for brain function and cardiovascular health. A daily intake of about 1.1 g of omega-3 fatty acids is recommended for women and 1.6 g for men. Not all omega-3 fatty acids can be fully produced in the body and some are naturally found mainly in oily fish such as salmon, herring, herring, sardines, so a vegetarian diet may not provide enough omega-3 fatty acids.

Refined olive oil or rapeseed oil may be used in cooking and frying. Unrefined, cold-pressed oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linseed, walnut, pumpkin seed oils should be used fresh, for example in salads and ready meals. In addition, unrefined, cold-pressed oils should be stored in a cool, dark place, as light oxidizes the oil, making it bitter and even harmful to health. Saturated fats are a source of energy and also contribute to the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins A, E, D, and K. The main dietary sources of saturated fat are milk fat, animal fat, palm oil, and coconut oil. It should be remembered that if fats are not used fully for energy, fat reserves will build up.

Drink 2-2.5 liters of fluid per day, including on average 1.5 liters of pure water.

Water is the basis for life and health. Adults are advised to consume at least 2-2.5 liters of fluid (or 30-35 ml per kilogram of body weight), including 1.5 liters in the form of drinking water. However, fluid intake is individual and depends on several factors, such as gender, physical activity, state of health, and ambient temperature. In hot weather and during periods of increased exertion, more water should be consumed.

It is recommended to drink the required amount of water per day, spread it evenly throughout the day. To encourage daily intake, lemon, strawberries, blueberries, kiwifruit, sliced watermelon or melon, cucumber slices, ginger, rosemary, mint, basil, etc. may be added. On hot summer days, pieces of fruit and chopped herb leaves can be frozen in ice cube trays and added to water. You can also drink vegetable and fruit juices, unsweetened fruit, and herbal teas, but remember that plain drinking water is a must in your daily diet. Sweetened soft drinks such as lemonade, seltzer water, juice drinks, iced tea should not be used to quench thirst as they contain a lot of added sugar.

Cut down on foods (e.g. convenience foods) high in added salt, sugar, and fat.

Salt intake is recommended to be no more than 5 g (about 1 teaspoon) per day. Eating too much salt can contribute to high blood pressure, affect kidney function and retain water in the body. To limit salt intake in daily life, it is advisable to avoid foods containing 1.25 g or more of salts per 100 g of product, such as semi-prepared, pickled and salted foods, bouillon cubes, dry soups, vegetarian creams (e.g. soya beans, Turkish peas, vegetables), certain breakfast cereals and other foods with high salt content. When cooking at home, a variety of herbs and spices without added salt are recommended to improve the taste.

Sugar intake should also be limited to 10% of the total daily energy intake, which is on average 50 g or 12 teaspoons of sugar. For health promotion, the World Health Organisation recommends that sugar should be consumed up to 5% of the total daily energy intake, equivalent to 25 g or 6 teaspoons of sugar per day. It should be stressed that most sugar (fructose syrup, corn syrup, fructose, dextrose, cane sugar, malt, molasses, honey, etc.) is ingested through manufactured, ready-to-eat foods. Generally, sweetened, carbonated drinks, sweets, confectionery, yogurts with additives, various ready-made sauces, etc. contain a lot of sugar.

Tips to reduce salt and sugar intake:

Choose as fresh food as possible or minimally processed.

Compare foods of the same product group and select those with less added salt and less sugar.

Use different types of spices and herbs in your diet to enrich the taste of the food.

It is also advisable to limit high-fat foods. On the other hand, foods containing trans-fatty acids (partially hydrogenated vegetable fats) should be avoided altogether. Trans-fatty acids are produced by the industrial partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils, as well as by heating fats and frying foods at high temperatures (> 2200 C). Trans-fatty acids are most commonly found in milk and vegetable fat mixtures, sweets, pastries, cottage cheese, fast food (French fries, burgers, etc.), and other products using partially hydrogenated vegetable fats. When buying food products, read the information on the label carefully. Do not choose foods that state on the label that they are made with "partially hydrogenated vegetable fats".

Try to ensure that you get enough of foods that are sources of iron, zinc, vitamin B12, iodine, vitamin D, and calcium.

Iron provides oxygen to tissues and participates in important biochemical reactions and contributes to the normal functioning of the immune system. Iron deficiency in the body usually occurs without specific symptoms of ill health. It is therefore important to consult a medical practitioner for appropriate nutrition and additional necessary laboratory tests. Iron is present in sufficient quantities in a vegetarian diet, but in a form that is difficult to obtain, as it is less well absorbed from plant products than from animal products. Therefore, vegetarians need to consume more iron-containing foods than omnivores. The main sources of iron in a vegetarian diet are legumes, including soya and soya products, oatmeal, buckwheat, quinoa, amaranth, cashew nuts, almonds, sesame seeds, pumpkin seeds, apricots, dates, raisins, and figs.

Tips to promote iron absorption:

Iron products should be used in combination with vitamin C and organic acid products such as parsley, citrus fruits, black currants, peppers, kiwi fruit.

Avoid including tea and coffee in your meals, as the tannins present in them prevent the absorption of iron.

Legumes, cereals, and seeds should be soaked or cooked before use to promote iron absorption.

Zinc participates in many biochemical reactions and is composed of various enzymes and insulin, as well as stabilizes protein structure, participates in immunological processes, and is required for hormone synthesis. The main sources of zinc in a vegetarian diet are cheese, eggs, pulses, including soy and soy products, pecans, cashew nuts, pumpkin seeds, sesame seeds (toast or tahini), sprouted grains, rye bread, oatmeal, brown rice, amaranth, etc.

Tips to promote zinc absorption:

Before cooking the legumes, soak them or use canned legumes without added salt.

Freshly sprouted legumes, cereals and seeds may be used in the diet.

Include vegetables and fruits that contain vitamin C and organic acids in your meals.

Iodine is a component of thyroid hormones that helps regulate metabolism and growth and helps maintain many organs. Iodine deficiency can cause thyroid problems. The main sources of iodine in the vegetarian diet are milk and dairy products, seaweed products (eg kelp, sea cabbage, seaweed), and iodized salt.

Calcium provides healthy bone and tooth formation, as well as muscle function and blood clotting. Insufficient calcium intake reduces bone density and increases the risk of osteoporosis. A healthy vegetarian diet, which includes all four food groups, will provide enough calcium. The main sources of calcium in the vegetarian diet are milk and dairy products, almonds, Brazil nuts, sesame seeds (pumpkin seeds), pumpkin seeds, amaranth, oatmeal, dried apricots, figs, soybeans, broccoli, cabbage, courgette, fennel, and parsley.

Tips to promote calcium absorption:

Provide enough vitamin D.

Restrict salt intake (salt promotes calcium excretion).

Limit the intake of caffeine, especially during meals (the caffeine present in tea, coffee, energy drinks, non-alcoholic sweetened drinks, etc. prevents calcium absorption).

Be physically active (reduce the risk of osteoporosis).

Vitamin D provides normal bone development, regulates calcium and phosphorus exchange and absorption in the gastrointestinal tract, and is essential for the immune system. The main sources of vitamin D in the vegetarian diet are mushrooms, incl. boletus, shiitake mushrooms, egg yolk, milk, and dairy products, and vitamin D enriched foods. Vitamin D is mainly formed in the skin by natural sunlight.

People in the Nordic countries have enough sun exposure between April and September for 5 to 15 minutes a day, two to three times a week, with their faces and hands exposed. Depending on your skin type, ultraviolet radiation index, and other recommendations for safe tanning, you should apply sunblock. It should also be remembered that it is not advisable to use a solarium to increase vitamin D levels.

Vitamin B12 participates in protein synthesis, production of red blood cells, development and function of the nervous system. Vitamin B12 is naturally present in animal products, so it is important to include eggs, milk, and dairy products or foods fortified with vitamin B12.

Vegetarian diets are usually rich in folic acid, which can mask the symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency and delay the development of anemia, but it cannot prevent damage to the nervous system when this vitamin deficiency continues for an extended period. Vitamin B12 deficiency may not manifest itself immediately after the withdrawal of animal products, but it may take several years, because the reserves of vitamin B12 stored in the liver and kidneys may last only a few years. The main sources of vitamin B12 in the vegetarian diet are milk and dairy products, eggs, and mushrooms.

When in doubt, consult your family doctor, dietician, or nutritionist to prevent deficiencies of nutrients, vitamins, and minerals.

Unjustified and excessive use of dietary supplements or medications can be harmful to your health. Nutritional supplements do not replace a complete and balanced diet.

Examples of vegetarian meals

Food groups are diverse: vegetables, fruits and berries, cereals, potatoes, milk and dairy products, legumes, eggs, nuts and seeds, fats, and liquid. It is advisable to include foods from all product groups in the daily diet according to the portion size. When planning a daily meal, it is advisable to combine foods both inside and outside the product group, for example by including a fresh vegetable salad, ½ cup brown rice, 150g bean in yogurt sauce, and freshly squeezed fruit juice.

For breakfast:

  1. Omelet with vegetables (eggs, peppers, onions, tomatoes, milk, olive oil), rye bread;
  2. Oatmeal porridge with berries (oatmeal, water, milk, berries);
  3. Cottage cheese with cucumber, onion, celery, and fat-free yogurt, rye bread with tomato;
  4. Millet - pumpkin porridge (pumpkin, millet, water, milk, fresh cheese, linseed oil);
  5. Wholegrain bread with sesame paste (tahini), fresh fruit, or berry salad with yogurt.

For lunch:

  1. Vegetable-bean stew, rye bread;
  2. Bean cakes (beans, egg, onion, carrot, breadcrumbs, seasoning), wholemeal lavash with vegetables and yogurt sauce (fat-free yogurt, garlic, parsley, basil);
  3. Potato-vegetable stew with egg (cauliflower, courgette, potato, tomato, carrot, leek, mushrooms, egg, cheese), fresh vegetable salad;
  4. Mushroom sauce with oven-baked potatoes and vegetables, cottage cheese;
  5. Pearl-vegetable stew (pearls, courgettes, carrot, peppers, etc.) with a leek sauce (leek fried in olive oil with horseradish, cream).

For dinner:

  1. Potato-egg salad (potatoes, eggs, cucumber, onion, fat-free yogurt, linseed oil), rye bread;
  2. Beetroot soup with mushrooms and beans (beetroot, carrots, mushrooms, paprika, cabbage, barley groats, cooked beans, tomato, paste, onion, seasoning), rye bread;
  3. Mushroom risotto (rice, mushrooms, onions, vegetable broth, hard cheese, cream, olive oil), fresh vegetable salad with hemp oil;
  4. Wholegrain pasta with broccoli (pasta, broccoli, cheese, Turkish peas, garlic, chili, etc. seasoning, olive oil, sesame seeds);
  5. Vegetable stew with buckwheat (courgette, aubergine, buckwheat, onion, paprika, tomato paste, spices), Fried Tofu, fresh leaf-cucumber salad with pumpkin seeds and pumpkin oil.

For snacks:

  1. Turkish pea pate or hummus with fresh vegetables;
  2. A handful of nuts, seeds, or dried fruit;
  3. Non-fat yogurt with fruit or berries, flaxseeds, hemp seeds;
  4. Oatmeal cookies (banana, oatmeal, peanut butter, seeds and dried fruit, cinnamon) with milk;
  5. Tomato, mozzarella cheese, pesto.

In addition, remember to take enough liquid during the day.