Women today postpone pregnancy beyond the age of 40 because they prioritize their professional and labor development, which is not achieved at the age of 20, the biologically ideal age to become pregnant, said Ana Paola Sanchez Serrano, a graduate of the School of Medicine (FM) and founding partner of the Procrea Reproduction Center.
The incidence of the use of assisted reproduction has increased due to older marriages, postponement of motherhood, in addition to conceiving a smaller number of children, greater use of contraceptives, and increased exposure to toxic substances such as tobacco and sexually transmitted diseases. Thanks to the progress of science, assisted reproduction techniques are currently being successfully applied to help couples who are naturally unable to have children, either because of their age or various ailments.
Infertility is a public health problem that affects many couples, many of whom seek at all costs to conceiving a baby. The possibility of becoming pregnant in humans is relatively low, from 20 to 25 percent in healthy couples, although this is associated with age. The younger the couple, the greater the chance of becoming pregnant. From 50 to 60 percent of the cases that do not succeed are associated with problems of the woman; from 40 to 50 percent to the man and from five to ten percent to unknown causes.
This is a branch of Reproductive Biology, which in turn is a subspecialty of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Medicine, said Sanchez Serrano.
Among the most common and modern techniques are programmed intercourse with ovulation induction, which seeks to optimize that period to program sexual intercourse to achieve pregnancy. It is used mainly in young couples with mild infertility problems or in those who want an alternative to traditional assisted reproduction techniques.
Another is artificial or intrauterine insemination, which consists of injecting a processed semen sample directly into the uterus to facilitate the arrival of the sperm to the egg, to increase the chances of fertility. It is frequently used when the sperm or cervical mucus are of poor quality, which prevents the correct movement of the sperm.
It is a simple practice in which the semen is subjected to a wash in which the healthiest sperm are selected to increase the success rate. No anesthesia is needed, it is fast and safe. For the use of this method, the doctor must determine that at least one of the tubes is permeable: that is, it allows the passage of sperm easily.
In vitro fertilization is the treatment by means of which the fertilization of the ovum does not take place inside the mother's uterus, but in the laboratory by means of different techniques.
It can be performed when there are different problems, such as when the fallopian tubes impede the passage of sperm to the egg; when there are few eggs available or if ovulation occurs in prolonged periods; for some conditions that affect the ovarian or tubal function; also when there is little presence of sperm in the semen and its quality is not the required to achieve fertilization naturally.
It requires prior ovarian stimulation with medication to promote the development of follicles and thus get more and better eggs. The specialist in Reproductive Biology clarified that, before selecting the procedure to be applied, each case must be studied individually and the correct diagnosis must be made to indicate the most adequate method for each couple.