Indigenous languages ​​in Oaxaca

The state of the Mexican republic with the most indigenous languages ​​is Oaxaca. Those with the highest number of speakers are Zapotec, Mixtec, Mazatec and Mixe. The list includes muzgos, chatino, chinanteco, chocho, chontal, cuicateco, huave, ixcateco, nahuatl, popoloca, triqui, and zoque.

Zapotec

Heroica Ciudad de Juchitán de Zaragoza, Oaxaca

The Zapotec languages, which include the languages ​​known as Papabuco and Solteco, belong to the Zapotec group of the Oto-Mangue linguistic family.

The name Zapoteco used historically by the Mexican population, designates an indigenous group and also a set of closely related indigenous languages. This name is the Spanish form of Zapotec, which in Nahuatl means people of zapote. The Zapotec languages ​​have different names to call themselves, a difference that obeys different aspects, such as the languages ​​themselves, the territorial sub-areas or even the communities; for example diidxa zá, distsë, dill xil language of the clouds or word of the clouds. This group is also named among other forms bíny dìsàa, bène xhon or be'ene zaa, expressions that mean people who speak the language of the clouds.

The area historically occupied by the Zapotecs is located in the center and east of Oaxaca, and a portion of Veracruz. The Zapotec languages ​​are spoken in Oaxaca (220 municipalities) and in the southwest of Veracruz (three municipalities). In this area, the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics (INEGI), through the XII General Census of Population and Housing 2000, identified 2 011 localities, in each of which 5% or more of the population speaks some of the Zapotec languages; These letters represent 1 186 localities, where 10 or more people speak one of these languages. The Zapotec languages ​​border to the west of the area with some of the Mixtec languages; to the east with some of the Mixes and Zoques languages; to the south with the huave; and to the northwest with the chocho and the ixcateco and with some of the Chinantec and Cuicatec languages.

Triques

Santiago Juxtlahuaca, Oaxaca

The trique languages ​​belong to the Mixtecan group of the Oto-Mangue linguistic family.

The trique name, used historically by the Mexican population, designates an indigenous group and also a set of closely related indigenous languages. This name is the Castilianized form of driqui, which in the language itself means God. The trique languages ​​have different names to call themselves, a difference that obeys different aspects, such as the languages ​​themselves, the territorial sub-areas or even the communities; for example, nanj nï'ïnj lengua, yi nï'nanj nï'ïnj people of the complete language. Other documented names for these languages ​​are triqui or drique.

The area historically occupied by the triques is located northeast of Oaxaca on the border with Guerrero. The trique languages ​​are spoken in Oaxaca (five municipalities). In this area, the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics (INEGI), through the XII General Census of Population and Housing 2000, identified 77 localities, in each of which 5% or more of the population speaks some of the languages triques; all locations are represented in this letter. The trique languages ​​border the northeast and southeast of the area with Mixtec languages ​​of Oaxaca and to the west with Mixtec languages ​​of Guerrero.

Chatinas

Santa Cruz Zenzontepec, Oaxaca

The Chatino languages ​​belong to the Zapotecan group of the Oto-Mangue linguistic family.

The name Chatino used historically by the Mexican population, designates an indigenous group and a set of closely related indigenous languages. This name is the Castillian form of cha'tñan, which in the own language means words in a low voice. The Chatino languages ​​have different names to call themselves, a difference that obeys different factors, such as the languages ​​themselves, the territorial sub-areas or even the communities; for example in Santos Reyes Nopala and Yaitepec the name is cha'tnio trabaa word; in Yaitepec it is chat'tña difficult word and in Tataltepec and Zezontepec it is tasa'jnya work of the words.

The area historically occupied by the Chatinos is located in the Sierra Madre del Sur, towards the coast of the Pacific Ocean. Chatina languages ​​are spoken in the southwest part of Oaxaca (13 municipalities). In this area, the National Institute of Statistics, Geography, and Informatics (INEGI), through the XII General Census of Population and Housing 2000, identified 234 localities, in each of which 5% or more of the population speaks some of the languages chatinas; all locations are represented in this letter. In addition, Sabinos, Las Delicias Hidalgo, Manialtepec and El Corozal were represented due to their historical relevance, even though speakers of one of the Chatina languages ​​reach less than 5% of the population. The Chatino languages ​​border on the west of the area with some of the Mixtec languages; to the north and east with some of the Zapotec languages.

Mixes

San Juan Guichicovi, Oaxaca

The Mixe languages ​​belong to the Mixean group of Oaxaca of the Mixe-Zoque linguistic family.

The Mixe name, historically used by the Mexican population, designates an indigenous group and also a set of closely related indigenous languages. This name is possibly the Castilian form of mixy, which in the language itself means male or boy. Mixed languages ​​have different names to call themselves, a difference that may correspond to languages, sub-areas or even communities; for example ayuuk, ayuujk or ayöök which means mountain language. The name with which the mixes call themselves is ayuuk jä'äy people who speak the mountain language.

The area historically occupied by the Mixes is located at the eastern end of the Sierra Norte de Oaxaca. Mixed languages ​​are spoken in Oaxaca (21 municipalities). In this area the National Institute of Statistics, Geography, and Informatics (INEGI), through the XII General Census of Population and Housing 2000, identified 349 localities, in each of which 5% or more of the population speaks any of the languages mixes; all locations are represented in this letter. The Mixes languages ​​adjoin the northwest of the region with one of the Chinantec languages; to the north, west and south with some of the Zapotec languages; they share with one of the Zapotec languages ​​the territory of the municipality of Santiago Lachiguiri, Oaxaca.

Chocholteca

Santa María Nativitas, Oaxaca

The chocholteca language belongs to the popolocano group of the oto-mangue linguistic family.

The name chocholteco, used historically by the Mexican population, designates an indigenous group and its language. Possibly this name is the Castilianized form of Chocholteca, which in Nahuatl could refer to coarse or miserable people; This interpretation contrasts with the high prestige that the Chocholteco had during the colonial era, as it was one of the four languages ​​of Mexico with a tradition of scribes during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The speakers of Chocholteco call their language Ngigua, which means the language itself.

The area historically occupied by the Chocholtecos is located north of the Mixteca Alta. The Chocholtecan language is spoken in Oaxaca (six municipalities). In this area, the National Institute of Geography, Statistics, and Informatics (INEGI), through the XII General Census of Population and Housing 2000, identified 27 localities, in each of which 5% or more of the population speaks Chocholteco; all locations are represented in this letter. Chocholteco is surrounded by some of the Mixtec languages ​​of Oaxaca.

Huave

San Mateo del Mar, Oaxaca

In the absence of evidence to include the huave within one of the known linguistic families, it is considered a genealogically isolated language.

The name huave, used historically by the Mexican population, designates an indigenous group and also its language. Apparently, the name comes from a Zapotec language and is likely to have a pejorative meaning. The speakers of huave call their language ombeayiüts, which means our language. This group names itself ikoots us.

The area historically occupied by the huaves is located on the coast of the Gulf of Tehuantepec. The Huave language is spoken in the south of Oaxaca (four municipalities). In this area, the National Institute of Geography, Statistics, and Informatics (INEGI), through the XII General Census of Population and Housing 2000, identified 19 localities, each of which 5% or more of the population speaks huave; all of them are represented in this letter. The huave, to the northwest of the area, shares with one of the Zapotec languages ​​the territory of the municipality of Juchitán de Zaragoza.

Chontal de Oaxaca

San Carlos Yautepec, Oaxaca

In the absence of evidence to include the Chontal languages ​​of Oaxaca within one of the known linguistic families, these are considered as genealogically isolated languages.

The Chontal name of Oaxaca, historically used by the Mexican population, designates an indigenous group and a set of closely related indigenous languages. The first part of this name is the Castilianized form of Chontal, which in Nahuatl means foreigners or foreigners. The speakers of the Chontal languages ​​of Oaxaca call their language slijuala xanuc, whose meaning has not been clarified. Other names documented for the Chontal languages ​​of Oaxaca are Tequistlateco (sub-area serrana) and Huamelultec (sub-area coastal).

The area historically occupied by the Chontales de Oaxaca is located in the Sierra Madre del Sur and the southwestern coastal plain of Oaxaca. The Chontal languages ​​of Oaxaca are spoken in four municipalities of this entity. In this area, the National Institute of Geography, Statistics and Informatics (INEGI), through the XII General Census of Population and Housing 2000, identified 35 localities, each of which 5% or more of the population speaks any of the languages chontales de Oaxaca; all locations are represented in this letter. The Chontal languages ​​of Oaxaca border the northwest and northeast of the area with some of the Zapotec languages.

Cuicatecas

Santos Reyes Pápalo, Oaxaca

The Cuicatec languages ​​belong to the Mixtecan group of the Oto-Mangue linguistic family.

The Cuicateco name, used historically by the Mexican population, designates an indigenous group and also a set of closely related indigenous languages. This name is the Castilianized form of Cuicateca, which in Nahuatl means people of the song. Cuicatec languages ​​have different names to call themselves, a difference that may correspond to languages, sub-areas or even communities; for example, nduudu which means language. This indigenous group names itself y'an, which means people; it is also used to designate the community; consider the expression y'an yivacu people of the house of the hill or people of Cuicatlán.

The area historically occupied by the Cuicatecos is known as La Cañada. Cuicatec languages ​​are spoken north of Oaxaca (18 municipalities). In this area, the National Institute of Geography, Statistics, and Informatics (INEGI), through the XII General Census of Population and Housing 2000, identified 110 localities, in each of which 5% or more of the population speaks some of the languages cuicatecas; all of them are represented in this letter. The localities of El Progreso, San Juan Teutila and Colonia Lázaro Cárdenas were represented by their historical and geographical relevance, even when speakers of one of the Cuicatec languages ​​reached less than 5% of the population. The Cuicatec languages ​​border the northwest of the area with Mazatec, Mixtec and Ixcatecan languages; to the southwest with Mixtec, Zapotec and Chinantec languages.

Ixcateca

Santa María Ixcatlán, Oaxaca

The ixcateco belongs to the popolocano group of the oto-mangue linguistic family.

The name ixcateco, used historically by the Mexican population, designates an indigenous group and also its language. This name is the Castilianized form of Ixcateca, which in Nahuatl means people of cotton.

The area historically occupied by the Ixcatecans is located north of Oaxaca. The ixcatech language is spoken in a municipality of said entity. In this area, the National Institute of Geography, Statistics, and Informatics (INEGI), through the XII General Population and Housing Census 2000, identified a locality, in which 3.9% of the population speaks ixcatech; said location has been marked in this letter. The ixcateco borders the south of the area with the Chocholteco and with some of the Mixtec languages; to the north with the Mazatec languages and to the east with the Cuicatec.

Chinantecas

San Lucas Ojitlán, Oaxaca

The Chinantec languages ​​belong to the Chinantecan group of the Oto-Mangue linguistic family.

The Chinantec name, historically used by the Mexican population, designates an indigenous group and also a set of closely related indigenous languages. This name is the Castilianized form of Chinanteca, which in Nahuatl means people from the cane fence. The Chinantec languages ​​have different names to call themselves, a difference that obeys different factors, such as the languages ​​themselves, the territorial sub-areas or even the communities; for example jmiih, which means language and ju jmi'an old word, among others.

The area historically occupied by the Chinantecs is located in the region known as La Chinantla. The Chinantec languages ​​are spoken in Oaxaca (17 municipalities); This letter includes a part of Veracruz (a municipality) where some of the Chinantecos affected by the construction of the Cerro de Oro dam were relocated. In this area the National Institute of Statistics, Geography, and Informatics (INEGI), through the XII General Census of Population and Housing 2000, identified 439 localities, in each of which 5% or more of the population speaks some of the Chinantec languages; all locations are represented in this letter. The Chinantec languages ​​border the north of the area with some of the Mazatec languages, to the northwest with the Cuicatec languages, to the southeast with one of the Mixe languages ​​and to the south with some of the Zapotec languages.

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